[PATCH v7] introduce vfio-user protocol specification

Thanos Makatos posted 1 patch 9 months, 4 weeks ago
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git fetch https://github.com/patchew-project/qemu tags/patchew/20201130161229.23164-1-thanos.makatos@nutanix.com
MAINTAINERS              |    6 +
docs/devel/index.rst     |    1 +
docs/devel/vfio-user.rst | 1662 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
3 files changed, 1669 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 docs/devel/vfio-user.rst

[PATCH v7] introduce vfio-user protocol specification

Posted by Thanos Makatos 9 months, 4 weeks ago
This patch introduces the vfio-user protocol specification (formerly
known as VFIO-over-socket), which is designed to allow devices to be
emulated outside QEMU, in a separate process. vfio-user reuses the
existing VFIO defines, structs and concepts.

It has been earlier discussed as an RFC in:
"RFC: use VFIO over a UNIX domain socket to implement device offloading"

Signed-off-by: John G Johnson <john.g.johnson@oracle.com>
Signed-off-by: Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>

---

Changed since v1:
  * fix coding style issues
  * update MAINTAINERS for VFIO-over-socket
  * add vfio-over-socket to ToC

Changed since v2:
  * fix whitespace

Changed since v3:
  * rename protocol to vfio-user
  * add table of contents
  * fix Unicode problems
  * fix typos and various reStructuredText issues
  * various stylistic improvements
  * add backend program conventions
  * rewrite part of intro, drop QEMU-specific stuff
  * drop QEMU-specific paragraph about implementation
  * explain that passing of FDs isn't necessary
  * minor improvements in the VFIO section
  * various text substitutions for the sake of consistency
  * drop paragraph about client and server, already explained in
  * intro
  * drop device ID
  * drop type from version
  * elaborate on request concurrency
  * convert some inessential paragraphs into notes
  * explain why some existing VFIO defines cannot be reused
  * explain how to make changes to the protocol
  * improve text of DMA map
  * reword comment about existing VFIO commands
  * add reference to Version section
  * reset device on disconnection
  * reword live migration section
  * replace sys/vfio.h with linux/vfio.h
  * drop reference to iovec
  * use argz the same way it is used in VFIO
  * add type field in header for clarity

Changed since v4:
  * introduce support for live migration as defined in
  * include/uapi/linux/vfio.h
  * introduce 'max_fds' and 'migration' capabilities:
  * remove 'index' from VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO
  * fix minor typos and reworded some text for clarity

Changed since v5:
  * fix minor typos
  * separate VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP and VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP
  * clarify meaning of VFIO bitmap size field
  * move version major/minor outside JSON
  * client proposes version first
  * make Errno optional in message header
  * clarification about message ID uniqueness
  * clarify that server->client request can appear in between
    client->server request/reply

Changed since v6:
  * put JSON strings in double quotes
  * clarify reply behavior on error
  * introduce max message size capability
  * clarify semantics when failing to map multiple DMA regions in a
    single command

You can focus on v6 to v7 changes by cloning my fork
(https://github.com/tmakatos/qemu) and doing:

        git diff refs/tags/vfio-user/v6 refs/heads/vfio-user/v7
---
 MAINTAINERS              |    6 +
 docs/devel/index.rst     |    1 +
 docs/devel/vfio-user.rst | 1662 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 1669 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 docs/devel/vfio-user.rst

diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
index 68bc160f41..6a4c662976 100644
--- a/MAINTAINERS
+++ b/MAINTAINERS
@@ -1766,6 +1766,12 @@ F: hw/vfio/ap.c
 F: docs/system/s390x/vfio-ap.rst
 L: qemu-s390x@nongnu.org
 
+vfio-user
+M: John G Johnson <john.g.johnson@oracle.com>
+M: Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>
+S: Supported
+F: docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
+
 vhost
 M: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>
 S: Supported
diff --git a/docs/devel/index.rst b/docs/devel/index.rst
index f10ed77e4c..2e2cba28c6 100644
--- a/docs/devel/index.rst
+++ b/docs/devel/index.rst
@@ -35,3 +35,4 @@ Contents:
    clocks
    qom
    block-coroutine-wrapper
+   vfio-user
diff --git a/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst b/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..d15a228a1a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,1662 @@
+.. include:: <isonum.txt>
+
+********************************
+vfio-user Protocol Specification
+********************************
+
+------------
+Version_ 0.1
+------------
+
+.. contents:: Table of Contents
+
+Introduction
+============
+vfio-user is a protocol that allows a device to be emulated in a separate
+process outside of a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM). vfio-user devices consist
+of a generic VFIO device type, living inside the VMM, which we call the client,
+and the core device implementation, living outside the VMM, which we call the
+server.
+
+The `Linux VFIO ioctl interface <https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/driver-api/vfio.html>`_
+been chosen as the base for this protocol for the following reasons:
+
+1) It is a mature and stable API, backed by an extensively used framework.
+2) The existing VFIO client implementation in QEMU (qemu/hw/vfio/) can be
+   largely reused.
+
+.. Note::
+   In a proof of concept implementation it has been demonstrated that using VFIO
+   over a UNIX domain socket is a viable option. vfio-user is designed with
+   QEMU in mind, however it could be used by other client applications. The
+   vfio-user protocol does not require that QEMU's VFIO client  implementation
+   is used in QEMU.
+
+None of the VFIO kernel modules are required for supporting the protocol,
+neither in the client nor the server, only the source header files are used.
+
+The main idea is to allow a virtual device to function in a separate process in
+the same host over a UNIX domain socket. A UNIX domain socket (AF_UNIX) is
+chosen because file descriptors can be trivially sent over it, which in turn
+allows:
+
+* Sharing of client memory for DMA with the server.
+* Sharing of server memory with the client for fast MMIO.
+* Efficient sharing of eventfd's for triggering interrupts.
+
+Other socket types could be used which allow the server to run in a separate
+guest in the same host (AF_VSOCK) or remotely (AF_INET). Theoretically the
+underlying transport does not necessarily have to be a socket, however we do
+not examine such alternatives. In this protocol version we focus on using a
+UNIX domain socket and introduce basic support for the other two types of
+sockets without considering performance implications.
+
+While passing of file descriptors is desirable for performance reasons, it is
+not necessary neither for the client nor for the server to support it in order
+to implement the protocol. There is always an in-band, message-passing fall
+back mechanism.
+
+VFIO
+====
+VFIO is a framework that allows a physical device to be securely passed through
+to a user space process; the device-specific kernel driver does not drive the
+device at all.  Typically, the user space process is a VMM and the device is
+passed through to it in order to achieve high performance. VFIO provides an API
+and the required functionality in the kernel. QEMU has adopted VFIO to allow a
+guest to directly access physical devices, instead of emulating them in
+software.
+
+vfio-user reuses the core VFIO concepts defined in its API, but implements them
+as messages to be sent over a socket. It does not change the kernel-based VFIO
+in any way, in fact none of the VFIO kernel modules need to be loaded to use
+vfio-user. It is also possible for the client to concurrently use the current
+kernel-based VFIO for one device, and vfio-user for another device.
+
+VFIO Device Model
+-----------------
+A device under VFIO presents a standard interface to the user process. Many of
+the VFIO operations in the existing interface use the ioctl() system call, and
+references to the existing interface are called the ioctl() implementation in
+this document.
+
+The following sections describe the set of messages that implement the VFIO
+interface over a socket. In many cases, the messages are direct translations of
+data structures used in the ioctl() implementation. Messages derived from
+ioctl()s will have a name derived from the ioctl() command name.  E.g., the
+VFIO_GET_INFO ioctl() command becomes a VFIO_USER_GET_INFO message.  The
+purpose of this reuse is to share as much code as feasible with the ioctl()
+implementation.
+
+Connection Initiation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+After the client connects to the server, the initial server message is
+VFIO_USER_VERSION to propose a protocol version and set of capabilities to
+apply to the session. The client replies with a compatible version and set of
+capabilities it supports, or closes the connection if it cannot support the
+advertised version.
+
+DMA Memory Configuration
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP and VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP messages to inform
+the server of the valid DMA ranges that the server can access on behalf
+of a device. DMA memory may be accessed by the server via VFIO_USER_DMA_READ
+and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages over the socket.
+
+An optimization for server access to client memory is for the client to provide
+file descriptors the server can mmap() to directly access client memory. Note
+that mmap() privileges cannot be revoked by the client, therefore file
+descriptors should only be exported in environments where the client trusts the
+server not to corrupt guest memory.
+
+Device Information
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO message to query the server for
+information about the device. This information includes:
+
+* The device type and whether it supports reset (``VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_``),
+* the number of device regions, and
+* the device presents to the client the number of interrupt types the device
+  supports.
+
+Region Information
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO messages to query the server
+for information about the device's memory regions. This information describes:
+
+* Read and write permissions, whether it can be memory mapped, and whether it
+  supports additional capabilities (``VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_``).
+* Region index, size, and offset.
+
+When a region can be mapped by the client, the server provides a file
+descriptor which the client can mmap(). The server is responsible for polling
+for client updates to memory mapped regions.
+
+Region Capabilities
+"""""""""""""""""""
+Some regions have additional capabilities that cannot be described adequately
+by the region info data structure. These capabilities are returned in the
+region info reply in a list similar to PCI capabilities in a PCI device's
+configuration space.
+
+Sparse Regions
+""""""""""""""
+A region can be memory-mappable in whole or in part. When only a subset of a
+region can be mapped by the client, a VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_SPARSE_MMAP
+capability is included in the region info reply. This capability describes
+which portions can be mapped by the client.
+
+.. Note::
+   For example, in a virtual NVMe controller, sparse regions can be used so
+   that accesses to the NVMe registers (found in the beginning of BAR0) are
+   trapped (an infrequent event), while allowing direct access to the doorbells
+   (an extremely frequent event as every I/O submission requires a write to
+   BAR0), found right after the NVMe registers in BAR0.
+
+Device-Specific Regions
+"""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+A device can define regions additional to the standard ones (e.g. PCI indexes
+0-8). This is achieved by including a VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_TYPE capability
+in the region info reply of a device-specific region. Such regions are reflected
+in ``struct vfio_device_info.num_regions``. Thus, for PCI devices this value can
+be equal to, or higher than, VFIO_PCI_NUM_REGIONS.
+
+Interrupts
+^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO messages to query the server for
+the device's interrupt types. The interrupt types are specific to the bus the
+device is attached to, and the client is expected to know the capabilities of
+each interrupt type. The server can signal an interrupt either with
+VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT messages over the socket, or can directly inject
+interrupts into the guest via an event file descriptor. The client configures
+how the server signals an interrupt with VFIO_USER_SET_IRQS messages.
+
+Device Read and Write
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+When the guest executes load or store operations to device memory, the client
+forwards these operations to the server with VFIO_USER_REGION_READ or
+VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE messages. The server will reply with data from the
+device on read operations or an acknowledgement on write operations.
+
+DMA
+^^^
+When a device performs DMA accesses to guest memory, the server will forward
+them to the client with VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages.
+These messages can only be used to access guest memory the client has
+configured into the server.
+
+Protocol Specification
+======================
+To distinguish from the base VFIO symbols, all vfio-user symbols are prefixed
+with vfio_user or VFIO_USER. In revision 0.1, all data is in the little-endian
+format, although this may be relaxed in future revision in cases where the
+client and server are both big-endian. The messages are formatted for seamless
+reuse of the native VFIO structs.
+
+Socket
+------
+
+A server can serve:
+
+1) one or more clients, and/or
+2) one or more virtual devices, belonging to one or more clients.
+
+The current protocol specification requires a dedicated socket per
+client/server connection. It is a server-side implementation detail whether a
+single server handles multiple virtual devices from the same or multiple
+clients. The location of the socket is implementation-specific. Multiplexing
+clients, devices, and servers over the same socket is not supported in this
+version of the protocol.
+
+Authentication
+--------------
+For AF_UNIX, we rely on OS mandatory access controls on the socket files,
+therefore it is up to the management layer to set up the socket as required.
+Socket types than span guests or hosts will require a proper authentication
+mechanism. Defining that mechanism is deferred to a future version of the
+protocol.
+
+Command Concurrency
+-------------------
+A client may pipeline multiple commands without waiting for previous command
+replies.  The server will process commands in the order they are received.  A
+consequence of this is if a client issues a command with the *No_reply* bit,
+then subseqently issues a command without *No_reply*, the older command will
+have been processed before the reply to the younger command is sent by the
+server.  The client must be aware of the device's capability to process
+concurrent commands if pipelining is used.  For example, pipelining allows
+multiple client threads to concurently access device memory; the client must
+ensure these acceses obey device semantics.
+
+An example is a frame buffer device, where the device may allow concurrent
+access to different areas of video memory, but may have indeterminate behavior
+if concurrent acceses are performed to command or status registers.
+
+Note that unrelated messages sent from the sevrer to the client can appear in
+between a client to server request/reply and vice versa.
+
+Socket Disconnection Behavior
+-----------------------------
+The server and the client can disconnect from each other, either intentionally
+or unexpectedly. Both the client and the server need to know how to handle such
+events.
+
+Server Disconnection
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+A server disconnecting from the client may indicate that:
+
+1) A virtual device has been restarted, either intentionally (e.g. because of a
+   device update) or unintentionally (e.g. because of a crash).
+2) A virtual device has been shut down with no intention to be restarted.
+
+It is impossible for the client to know whether or not a failure is
+intermittent or innocuous and should be retried, therefore the client should
+reset the VFIO device when it detects the socket has been disconnected.
+Error recovery will be driven by the guest's device error handling
+behavior.
+
+Client Disconnection
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client disconnecting from the server primarily means that the client
+has exited. Currently, this means that the guest is shut down so the device is
+no longer needed therefore the server can automatically exit. However, there
+can be cases where a client disconnection should not result in a server exit:
+
+1) A single server serving multiple clients.
+2) A multi-process QEMU upgrading itself step by step, which is not yet
+   implemented.
+
+Therefore in order for the protocol to be forward compatible the server should
+take no action when the client disconnects. If anything happens to the client
+the control stack will know about it and can clean up resources
+accordingly.
+
+Request Retry and Response Timeout
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+A failed command is a command that has been successfully sent and has been
+responded to with an error code. Failure to send the command in the first place
+(e.g. because the socket is disconnected) is a different type of error examined
+earlier in the disconnect section.
+
+.. Note::
+   QEMU's VFIO retries certain operations if they fail. While this makes sense
+   for real HW, we don't know for sure whether it makes sense for virtual
+   devices.
+
+Defining a retry and timeout scheme is deferred to a future version of the
+protocol.
+
+.. _Commands:
+
+Commands
+--------
+The following table lists the VFIO message command IDs, and whether the
+message command is sent from the client or the server.
+
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| Name                             | Command | Request Direction |
++==================================+=========+===================+
+| VFIO_USER_VERSION                | 1       | server -> client  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP                | 2       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP              | 3       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO        | 4       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO | 5       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO    | 6       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS        | 7       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_REGION_READ            | 8       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE           | 9       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_READ               | 10      | server -> client  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE              | 11      | server -> client  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT           | 12      | server -> client  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET           | 13      | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DIRTY_PAGES            | 14      | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+
+
+.. Note:: Some VFIO defines cannot be reused since their values are
+   architecture-specific (e.g. VFIO_IOMMU_MAP_DMA).
+
+Header
+------
+All messages, both command messages and reply messages, are preceded by a
+header that contains basic information about the message. The header is
+followed by message-specific data described in the sections below.
+
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Name           | Offset | Size        |
++================+========+=============+
+| Message ID     | 0      | 2           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Command        | 2      | 2           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Message size   | 4      | 4           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Flags          | 8      | 4           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
+|                | | Bit | Definition | |
+|                | +=====+============+ |
+|                | | 0-3 | Type       | |
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
+|                | | 4   | No_reply   | |
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
+|                | | 5   | Error      | |
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Error          | 12     | 4           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| <message data> | 16     | variable    |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+
+* *Message ID* identifies the message, and is echoed in the command's reply
+  message. Message IDs belong entirely to the sender, can be re-used (even
+  concurrently) and the receiver must not make any assumptions about their
+  uniqueness.
+* *Command* specifies the command to be executed, listed in Commands_.
+* *Message size* contains the size of the entire message, including the header.
+* *Flags* contains attributes of the message:
+
+  * The *Type* bits indicate the message type.
+
+    *  *Command* (value 0x0) indicates a command message.
+    *  *Reply* (value 0x1) indicates a reply message acknowledging a previous
+       command with the same message ID.
+  * *No_reply* in a command message indicates that no reply is needed for this command.
+    This is commonly used when multiple commands are sent, and only the last needs
+    acknowledgement.
+  * *Error* in a reply message indicates the command being acknowledged had
+    an error. In this case, the *Error* field will be valid.
+
+* *Error* in a reply message is an optional UNIX errno value. It may be zero
+  even if the Error bit is set in Flags. It is reserved in a command message.
+
+Each command message in Commands_ must be replied to with a reply message, unless the
+message sets the *No_Reply* bit.  The reply consists of the header with the *Reply*
+bit set, plus any additional data.
+
+If an error occurs, the reply message must only include the reply header.
+
+VFIO_USER_VERSION
+-----------------
+
+This is the initial message sent by the client after the socket connection is
+established:
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                                     |
++==============+===========================================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                                      |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Command      | 1                                         |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 + version header + version data length |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply                    |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                                   |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Version      | version header                            |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+
+Version Header Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
+| Name          | Offset | Size                                           |
++===============+========+================================================+
+| version major | 16     | 2                                              |
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
+| version minor | 18     | 2                                              |
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
+| version data  | 22     | variable (including terminating NUL            |
+|               |        | character). Optional.                          |
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
+
+Version Data Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The version data is an optional JSON byte array with the following format:
+
++--------------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
+| Name               | Type             | Description                       |
++====================+==================+===================================+
+| ``"capabilities"`` | collection of    | Contains common capabilities that |
+|                    | name/value pairs | the sender supports. Optional.    |
++--------------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
+
+Capabilities:
+
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+| Name               | Type             | Description                         |
++====================+==================+=====================================+
+| ``"max_fds"``      | number           | Maximum number of file descriptors  |
+|                    |                  | the can be received by the sender.  |
+|                    |                  | Optional. If not specified then the |
+|                    |                  | receiver must assume                |
+|                    |                  | ``"max_fds"=1``.                    |
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+| ``"max_msg_size"`` | number           | Maximum message size in bytes that  |
+|                    |                  | the receiver can handle, including  |
+|                    |                  | the header. Optional. If not        |
+|                    |                  | specified then the receiver must    |
+|                    |                  | assume ``"max_msg_size"=4096``.     |
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+| ``"migration"``    | collection of    | Migration capability parameters. If |
+|                    | name/value pairs | missing then migration is not       |
+|                    |                  | supported by the sender.            |
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+
+The migration capability contains the following name/value pairs:
+
++--------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------+
+| Name         | Type   | Description                                   |
++==============+========+===============================================+
+| ``"pgsize"`` | number | Page size of dirty pages bitmap. The smallest |
+|              |        | between the client and the server is used.    |
++--------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------+
+
+
+.. _Version:
+
+Versioning and Feature Support
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Upon accepting a connection, the client must send a VFIO_USER_VERSION message
+proposing a protocol version and a set of capabilities. The server compares
+these with the versions and capabilities it supports and sends a
+VFIO_USER_VERSION reply according to the following rules.
+
+* The major version in the reply must be the same as proposed. If the client
+  does not support the proposed major, it closes the connection.
+* The minor version in the reply must be equal to or less than the minor
+  version proposed.
+* The capability list must be a subset of those proposed. If the server
+  requires a capability the client did not include, it closes the connection.
+
+The protocol major version will only change when incompatible protocol changes
+are made, such as changing the message format. The minor version may change
+when compatible changes are made, such as adding new messages or capabilities,
+Both the client and server must support all minor versions less than the
+maximum minor version it supports. E.g., an implementation that supports
+version 1.3 must also support 1.0 through 1.2.
+
+When making a change to this specification, the protocol version number must
+be included in the form "added in version X.Y"
+
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP
+-----------------
+
+Message Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 2                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 + table size        |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Table        | array of table entries |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to inform it of the
+memory regions the server can access. It must be sent before the server can
+perform any DMA to the client. It is normally sent directly after the version
+handshake is completed, but may also occur when memory is added to the client,
+or if the client uses a vIOMMU. If the client does not expect the server to
+perform DMA then it does not need to send to the server VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP
+commands. If the server does not need to perform DMA then it can ignore such
+commands but it must still reply to them. The table is an array of the
+following structure:
+
+Table entry format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Name        | Offset | Size        |
++=============+========+=============+
+| Address     | 0      | 8           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Size        | 8      | 8           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Offset      | 16     | 8           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Protections | 24     | 4           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Flags       | 28     | 4           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+|             | +-----+------------+ |
+|             | | Bit | Definition | |
+|             | +=====+============+ |
+|             | | 0   | Mappable   | |
+|             | +-----+------------+ |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+
+* *Address* is the base DMA address of the region.
+* *Size* is the size of the region.
+* *Offset* is the file offset of the region with respect to the associated file
+  descriptor.
+* *Protections* are the region's protection attributes as encoded in
+  ``<sys/mman.h>``.
+* *Flags* contains the following region attributes:
+
+  * *Mappable* indicates that the region can be mapped via the mmap() system
+    call using the file descriptor provided in the message meta-data.
+
+This structure is 32 bytes in size, so the message size is:
+16 + (# of table entries * 32).
+
+If a DMA region being added can be directly mapped by the server, an array of
+file descriptors must be sent as part of the message meta-data. Each mappable
+region entry must have a corresponding file descriptor. On AF_UNIX sockets, the
+file descriptors must be passed as SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data. Otherwise,
+if a DMA region cannot be directly mapped by the server, it can be accessed by
+the server using VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages, explained
+in `Read and Write Operations`_. A command to map over an existing region must
+be failed by the server with ``EEXIST`` set in error field in the reply.
+
+Adding multiple DMA regions can partially fail. The response does not indicate
+which regions were added and which were not, therefore it is a client
+implementation detail how to recover from the failure.
+
+.. Note::
+   The server can optionally remove succesfully added DMA regions making this
+   operation atomic.
+   The client can recover by attempting to unmap one by one all the DMA regions
+   in the VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP command, ignoring failures for regions that do not
+   exist.
+
+
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP
+-------------------
+
+Message Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 3                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 + table size        |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Table        | array of table entries |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to inform it that a
+DMA region, previously made available via a VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP command message,
+is no longer available for DMA. It typically occurs when memory is subtracted
+from the client or if the client uses a vIOMMU. If the client does not expect
+the server to perform DMA then it does not need to send to the server
+VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP commands. If the server does not need to perform DMA then
+it can ignore such commands but it must still reply to them. The table is an
+array of the following structure:
+
+Table entry format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Name         | Offset | Size                                  |
++==============+========+=======================================+
+| Address      | 0      | 8                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Size         | 8      | 8                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Offset       | 16     | 8                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Protections  | 24     | 4                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Flags        | 28     | 4                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+|              | +-----+--------------------------------------+ |
+|              | | Bit | Definition                           | |
+|              | +=====+======================================+ |
+|              | | 0   | VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP | |
+|              | +-----+--------------------------------------+ |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| VFIO Bitmaps | 32     | variable                              |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+
+* *Address* is the base DMA address of the region.
+* *Size* is the size of the region.
+* *Offset* is the file offset of the region with respect to the associated file
+  descriptor.
+* *Protections* are the region's protection attributes as encoded in
+  ``<sys/mman.h>``.
+* *Flags* contains the following region attributes:
+
+  * *VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP* indicates that a dirty page bitmap
+    must be populated before unmapping the DMA region. The client must provide
+    a ``struct vfio_bitmap`` in the VFIO bitmaps field for each region, with
+    the ``vfio_bitmap.pgsize`` and ``vfio_bitmap.size`` fields initialized.
+
+* *VFIO Bitmaps* contains one ``struct vfio_bitmap`` per region if
+  ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is set in Flags.
+
+VFIO bitmap format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------+--------+------+
+| Name   | Offset | Size |
++========+========+======+
+| pgsize | 0      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| size   | 8      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| data   | 16     | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+
+* *pgsize* is the page size for the bitmap, in bytes.
+* *size* is the size for the bitmap, in bytes, excluding the VFIO bitmap header.
+* *data* This field is unused in vfio-user.
+
+The VFIO bitmap structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_bitmap``).
+
+If ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is not set in Flags then the size
+of the message is: 16 + (# of table entries * 32).
+If ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is set in Flags then the size of
+the message is: 16 + (# of table entries * 56).
+
+Upon receiving a VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP command, if the file descriptor is mapped
+then the server must release all references to that DMA region before replying,
+which includes potentially in flight DMA transactions. Removing a portion of a
+DMA region is possible. If the VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP bit is set
+in the request, the server must append to the header the ``struct vfio_bitmap``
+received in the command followed by the bitmap, for each region. Thus, the
+message size the client should expect is the size of the header plus the size
+of ``struct vfio_bitmap`` plus ``vfio_bitmap.size`` bytes for each region. Each
+bit in the bitmap represents one page of size ``vfio_bitmap.pgsize``.
+
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO
+-------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                      |
++==============+============================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                       |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Command      | 4                          |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 in command, 32 in reply |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply     |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                    |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Device info  | VFIO device info           |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for basic
+information about the device. Only the message header is needed in the command
+message.  The VFIO device info structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_device_info``).
+
+VFIO device info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| Name        | Offset | Size                     |
++=============+========+==========================+
+| argsz       | 16     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| flags       | 20     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
+|             | | Bit | Definition              | |
+|             | +=====+=========================+ |
+|             | | 0   | VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_RESET | |
+|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
+|             | | 1   | VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_PCI   | |
+|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| num_regions | 24     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| num_irqs    | 28     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO device info structure.
+* *flags* contains the following device attributes.
+
+  * VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_RESET indicates that the device supports the
+    VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET message.
+  * VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_PCI indicates that the device is a PCI device.
+
+* *num_regions* is the number of memory regions that the device exposes.
+* *num_irqs* is the number of distinct interrupt types that the device supports.
+
+This version of the protocol only supports PCI devices. Additional devices may
+be supported in future versions.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO
+--------------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 5                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 48 + any caps          |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Region info  | VFIO region info       |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for
+information about device memory regions. The VFIO region info structure is
+defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_region_info``). Since the client
+does not know the size of the capabilities, the size of the reply it should
+expect is 48 plus any capabilities whose size is indicated in the size field of
+the reply header.
+
+VFIO region info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| Name       | Offset | Size                         |
++============+========+==============================+
+| argsz      | 16     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| flags      | 20     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | Bit | Definition                  | |
+|            | +=====+=============================+ |
+|            | | 0   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_READ  | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | 1   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_WRITE | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | 2   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_MMAP  | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | 3   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_CAPS  | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| index      | 24     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| cap_offset | 28     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| size       | 32     | 8                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| offset     | 40     | 8                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO region info structure plus the
+  size of any region capabilities returned.
+* *flags* are attributes of the region:
+
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_READ* allows client read access to the region.
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_WRITE* allows client write access to the region.
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_MMAP* specifies the client can mmap() the region.
+    When this flag is set, the reply will include a file descriptor in its
+    meta-data. On AF_UNIX sockets, the file descriptors will be passed as
+    SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data.
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_CAPS* indicates additional capabilities found in the
+    reply.
+
+* *index* is the index of memory region being queried, it is the only field
+  that is required to be set in the command message.
+* *cap_offset* describes where additional region capabilities can be found.
+  cap_offset is relative to the beginning of the VFIO region info structure.
+  The data structure it points is a VFIO cap header defined in
+  ``<linux/vfio.h>``.
+* *size* is the size of the region.
+* *offset* is the offset given to the mmap() system call for regions with the
+  MMAP attribute. It is also used as the base offset when mapping a VFIO
+  sparse mmap area, described below.
+
+VFIO Region capabilities
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The VFIO region information can also include a capabilities list. This list is
+similar to a PCI capability list - each entry has a common header that
+identifies a capability and where the next capability in the list can be found.
+The VFIO capability header format is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct
+vfio_info_cap_header``).
+
+VFIO cap header format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++---------+--------+------+
+| Name    | Offset | Size |
++=========+========+======+
+| id      | 0      | 2    |
++---------+--------+------+
+| version | 2      | 2    |
++---------+--------+------+
+| next    | 4      | 4    |
++---------+--------+------+
+
+* *id* is the capability identity.
+* *version* is a capability-specific version number.
+* *next* specifies the offset of the next capability in the capability list. It
+  is relative to the beginning of the VFIO region info structure.
+
+VFIO sparse mmap
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| Name             | Value                            |
++==================+==================================+
+| id               | VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_SPARSE_MMAP |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| version          | 0x1                              |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| next             | <next>                           |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| sparse mmap info | VFIO region info sparse mmap     |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+
+This capability is defined when only a subrange of the region supports
+direct access by the client via mmap(). The VFIO sparse mmap area is defined in
+``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_region_sparse_mmap_area``).
+
+VFIO region info cap sparse mmap
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
++----------+--------+------+
+| Name     | Offset | Size |
++==========+========+======+
+| nr_areas | 0      | 4    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| reserved | 4      | 4    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| offset   | 8      | 8    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| size     | 16     | 9    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| ...      |        |      |
++----------+--------+------+
+
+* *nr_areas* is the number of sparse mmap areas in the region.
+* *offset* and size describe a single area that can be mapped by the client.
+  There will be nr_areas pairs of offset and size. The offset will be added to
+  the base offset given in the VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO to form the
+  offset argument of the subsequent mmap() call.
+
+The VFIO sparse mmap area is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct
+vfio_region_info_cap_sparse_mmap``).
+
+VFIO Region Type
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| Name             | Value                     |
++==================+===========================+
+| id               | VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_TYPE |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| version          | 0x1                       |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| next             | <next>                    |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| region info type | VFIO region info type     |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+
+This capability is defined when a region is specific to the device.
+
+VFIO region info type
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The VFIO region info type is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_region_info_cap_type``).
+
++---------+--------+------+
+| Name    | Offset | Size |
++=========+========+======+
+| type    | 0      | 4    |
++---------+--------+------+
+| subtype | 4      | 4    |
++---------+--------+------+
+
+The only device-specific region type and subtype supported by vfio-user is
+VFIO_REGION_TYPE_MIGRATION (3) and VFIO_REGION_SUBTYPE_MIGRATION (1).
+
+VFIO Device Migration Info
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The beginning of the subregion must contain
+``struct vfio_device_migration_info``, defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``. This
+subregion is accessed like any other part of a standard vfio-user PCI region
+using VFIO_USER_REGION_READ/VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE.
+
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| Name          | Offset | Size                        |
++===============+========+=============================+
+| device_state  | 0      | 4                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
+|               | | Bit | Definition                 | |
+|               | +=====+============================+ |
+|               | | 0   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RUNNING  | |
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
+|               | | 1   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_SAVING   | |
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
+|               | | 2   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RESUMING | |
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| reserved      | 4      | 4                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| pending_bytes | 8      | 8                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| data_offset   | 16     | 8                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| data_size     | 24     | 8                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+
+* *device_state* defines the state of the device:
+
+  The client initiates device state transition by writing the intended state.
+  The server must respond only after it has succesfully transitioned to the new
+  state. If an error occurs then the server must respond to the
+  VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE operation with the Error field set accordingly and
+  must remain at the previous state, or in case of internal error it must
+  transtition to the error state, defined as
+  VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RESUMING | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_SAVING. The client must
+  re-read the device state in order to determine it afresh.
+
+  The following device states are defined:
+
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | _RESUMING | _SAVING | _RUNNING | Description                       |
+  +===========+=========+==========+===================================+
+  | 0         | 0       | 0        | Device is stopped.                |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 0         | 0       | 1        | Device is running, default state. |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 0         | 1       | 0        | Stop-and-copy state               |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 0         | 1       | 1        | Pre-copy state                    |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 0       | 0        | Resuming                          |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 0       | 1        | Invalid state                     |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 1       | 0        | Error state                       |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 1       | 1        | Invalid state                     |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+
+  Valid state transitions are shown in the following table:
+
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | |darr| From / To |rarr| | Stopped | Running | Stop-and-copy | Pre-copy | Resuming |
+  +=========================+=========+=========+===============+==========+==========+
+  | Stopped                 |    \-   |    0    |       0       |    0     |     0    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Running                 |    1    |    \-   |       1       |    1     |     1    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Stop-and-copy           |    1    |    0    |       \-      |    0     |     0    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Pre-copy                |    0    |    0    |       1       |    \-    |     0    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Resuming                |    0    |    1    |       0       |    0     |     \-   |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+
+  A device is migrated to the destination as follows:
+
+  * The source client transitions the device state from the running state to
+    the pre-copy state. This transition is optional for the client but must be
+    supported by the server. The souce server starts sending device state data
+    to the source client through the migration region while the device is
+    running.
+
+  * The source client transitions the device state from the running state or the
+    pre-copy state to the stop-and-copy state. The source server stops the
+    device, saves device state and sends it to the source client through the
+    migration region.
+
+  The source client is responsible for sending the migration data to the
+  destination client.
+
+  A device is resumed on the destination as follows:
+
+  * The destination client transitions the device state from the running state
+    to the resuming state. The destination server uses the device state data
+    received through the migration region to resume the device.
+
+  * The destination client provides saved device state to the destination
+    server and then transitions the device to back to the running state.
+
+* *reserved* This field is reserved and any access to it must be ignored by the
+  server.
+
+* *pending_bytes* Remaining bytes to be migrated by the server. This field is
+  read only.
+
+* *data_offset* Offset in the migration region where the client must:
+
+  * read from, during the pre-copy or stop-and-copy state, or
+
+  * write to, during the resuming state.
+
+  This field is read only.
+
+* *data_size* Contains the size, in bytes, of the amount of data copied to:
+
+  * the source migration region by the source server during the pre-copy or
+    stop-and copy state, or
+
+  * the destination migration region by the destination client during the
+    resuming state.
+
+Device-specific data must be stored at any position after
+`struct vfio_device_migration_info`. Note that the migration region can be
+memory mappable, even partially. In practise, only the migration data portion
+can be memory mapped.
+
+The client processes device state data during the pre-copy and the
+stop-and-copy state in the following iterative manner:
+
+  1. The client reads `pending_bytes` to mark a new iteration. Repeated reads
+     of this field is an idempotent operation. If there are no migration data
+     to be consumed then the next step depends on the current device state:
+
+     * pre-copy: the client must try again.
+
+     * stop-and-copy: this procedure can end and the device can now start
+       resuming on the destination.
+
+  2. The client reads `data_offset`; at thich point the server must make
+     available a portion of migration data at this offset to be read by the
+     client, which must happen *before* completing the read operation. The
+     amount of data to be read must be stored in the `data_size` field, which
+     the client reads next.
+
+  3. The client reads `data_size` to determine the amount of migration data
+     available.
+
+  4. The client reads and processes the migration data.
+
+  5. Go to step 1.
+
+Note that the client can transition the device from the pre-copy state to the
+stop-and-copy state at any time; `pending_bytes` does not need to become zero.
+
+The client initializes the device state on the destination by setting the
+device state in the resuming state and writing the migration data to the
+destination migration region at `data_offset` offset. The client can write the
+source migration data in an iterative manner and the server must consume this
+data before completing each write operation, updating the `data_offset` field.
+The server must apply the source migration data on the device resume state. The
+client must write data on the same order and transction size as read.
+
+If an error occurs then the server must fail the read or write operation. It is
+an implementation detail of the client how to handle errors.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO
+-----------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 6                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 32                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| IRQ info     | VFIO IRQ info          |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for
+information about device interrupt types. The VFIO IRQ info structure is
+defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_irq_info``).
+
+VFIO IRQ info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| Name  | Offset | Size                      |
++=======+========+===========================+
+| argsz | 16     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| flags | 20     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | Bit | Definition               | |
+|       | +=====+==========================+ |
+|       | | 0   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_EVENTFD    | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | 1   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_MASKABLE   | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | 2   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_AUTOMASKED | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | 3   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_NORESIZE   | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| index | 24     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| count | 28     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO IRQ info structure.
+* *flags* defines IRQ attributes:
+
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_EVENTFD* indicates the IRQ type can support server eventfd
+    signalling.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_MASKABLE* indicates that the IRQ type supports the MASK and
+    UNMASK actions in a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS message.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_AUTOMASKED* indicates the IRQ type masks itself after being
+    triggered, and the client must send an UNMASK action to receive new
+    interrupts.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_NORESIZE* indicates VFIO_USER_SET_IRQS operations setup
+    interrupts as a set, and new sub-indexes cannot be enabled without disabling
+    the entire type.
+
+* index is the index of IRQ type being queried, it is the only field that is
+  required to be set in the command message.
+* count describes the number of interrupts of the queried type.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS
+-------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 7                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 36 + any data          |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| IRQ set      | VFIO IRQ set           |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to set actions for
+device interrupt types. The VFIO IRQ set structure is defined in
+``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_irq_set``).
+
+VFIO IRQ set format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| Name  | Offset | Size                         |
++=======+========+==============================+
+| argsz | 16     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| flags | 20     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | Bit | Definition                  | |
+|       | +=====+=============================+ |
+|       | | 0   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE      | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 1   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL      | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 2   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD   | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 3   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_MASK    | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 4   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_UNMASK  | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 5   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_TRIGGER | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| index | 24     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| start | 28     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| count | 32     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| data  | 36     | variable                     |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO IRQ set structure, including any *data* field.
+* *flags* defines the action performed on the interrupt range. The DATA flags
+  describe the data field sent in the message; the ACTION flags describe the
+  action to be performed. The flags are mutually exclusive for both sets.
+
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE* indicates there is no data field in the command.
+    The action is performed unconditionally.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL* indicates the data field is an array of boolean
+    bytes. The action is performed if the corresponding boolean is true.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD* indicates an array of event file descriptors
+    was sent in the message meta-data. These descriptors will be signalled when
+    the action defined by the action flags occurs. In AF_UNIX sockets, the
+    descriptors are sent as SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_MASK* indicates a masking event. It can be used with
+    VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to mask an interrupt, or
+    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event when the guest masks
+    the interrupt.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_UNMASK* indicates an unmasking event. It can be used
+    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to unmask an
+    interrupt, or with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event when the
+    guest unmasks the interrupt.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_TRIGGER* indicates a triggering event. It can be used
+    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to trigger an
+    interrupt, or with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event when the
+    server triggers the interrupt.
+
+* *index* is the index of IRQ type being setup.
+* *start* is the start of the sub-index being set.
+* *count* describes the number of sub-indexes being set. As a special case, a
+  count of 0 with data flags of VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE disables all interrupts
+  of the index.
+* *data* is an optional field included when the
+  VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL flag is present. It contains an array of booleans
+  that specify whether the action is to be performed on the corresponding
+  index. It's used when the action is only performed on a subset of the range
+  specified.
+
+Not all interrupt types support every combination of data and action flags.
+The client must know the capabilities of the device and IRQ index before it
+sends a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQ message.
+
+.. _Read and Write Operations:
+
+Read and Write Operations
+-------------------------
+
+Not all I/O operations between the client and server can be done via direct
+access of memory mapped with an mmap() call. In these cases, the client and
+server use messages sent over the socket. It is expected that these operations
+will have lower performance than direct access.
+
+The client can access server memory with VFIO_USER_REGION_READ and
+VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE commands. These share a common data structure that
+appears after the message header.
+
+REGION Read/Write Data
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Name   | Offset | Size     |
++========+========+==========+
+| Offset | 16     | 8        |
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Region | 24     | 4        |
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Count  | 28     | 4        |
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Data   | 32     | variable |
++--------+--------+----------+
+
+* *Offset* into the region being accessed.
+* *Region* is the index of the region being accessed.
+* *Count* is the size of the data to be transferred.
+* *Data* is the data to be read or written.
+
+The server can access client memory with VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and
+VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages. These also share a common data structure that
+appears after the message header.
+
+DMA Read/Write Data
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++---------+--------+----------+
+| Name    | Offset | Size     |
++=========+========+==========+
+| Address | 16     | 8        |
++---------+--------+----------+
+| Count   | 24     | 4        |
++---------+--------+----------+
+| Data    | 28     | variable |
++---------+--------+----------+
+
+* *Address* is the area of client memory being accessed. This address must have
+  been previously exported to the server with a VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP message.
+* *Count* is the size of the data to be transferred.
+* *Data* is the data to be read or written.
+
+VFIO_USER_REGION_READ
+---------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 8                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 32 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Read info    | REGION read/write data |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the client to the server to read from server
+memory.  In the command messages, there is no data, and the count is the amount
+of data to be read. The reply message must include the data read, and its count
+field is the amount of data read.
+
+VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE
+----------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 9                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 32 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Write info   | REGION read/write data |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the client to the server to write to server
+memory.  The command message must contain the data to be written, and its count
+field must contain the amount of write data. The count field in the reply
+message must be zero.
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_READ
+------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 10                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 28 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| DMA info     | DMA read/write data    |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the server to the client to read from client
+memory.  In the command message, there is no data, and the count must will be
+the amount of data to be read. The reply message must include the data read,
+and its count field must be the amount of data read.
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE
+-------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 11                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 28 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| DMA info     | DMA read/write data    |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the server to the client to write to client
+memory.  The command message must contain the data to be written, and its count
+field must contain the amount of write data. The count field in the reply
+message must be zero.
+
+VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT
+----------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Name           | Value                  |
++================+========================+
+| Message ID     | <ID>                   |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Command        | 12                     |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Message size   | 20                     |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Flags          | Reply bit set in reply |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Error          | 0/errno                |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Interrupt info | <interrupt>            |
++----------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the server to the client to signal the device
+has raised an interrupt.
+
+Interrupt info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-----------+--------+------+
+| Name      | Offset | Size |
++===========+========+======+
+| Sub-index | 16     | 4    |
++-----------+--------+------+
+
+* *Sub-index* is relative to the IRQ index, e.g., the vector number used in PCI
+  MSI/X type interrupts.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET
+----------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 13                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 16                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the client to the server to reset the device.
+
+VFIO_USER_DIRTY_PAGES
+---------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Name               | Value                  |
++====================+========================+
+| Message ID         | <ID>                   |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Command            | 14                     |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Message size       | 16                     |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Flags              | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Error              | 0/errno                |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| VFIO Dirty bitmap  | <dirty bitmap>         |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+
+This command is analogous to VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES. It is sent by the client
+to the server in order to control logging of dirty pages, usually during a live
+migration. The VFIO dirty bitmap structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_iommu_type1_dirty_bitmap``).
+
+VFIO Dirty Bitmap Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+| Name  | Offset | Size                                    |
++=======+========+=========================================+
+| argsz | 0      | 4                                       |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+| flags | 4      | 4                                       |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
+|       | | Bit | Definition                             | |
+|       | +=====+========================================+ |
+|       | | 0   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_START      | |
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
+|       | | 1   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP       | |
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
+|       | | 2   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_GET_BITMAP | |
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+| data  | 8      | 4                                       |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO dirty bitmap info structure.
+
+* *flags* defines the action to be performed by the server:
+
+  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_START* instructs the server to start logging
+    pages it dirties. Logging continues until explicitly disabled by
+    VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP.
+
+  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP* instructs the server to stop logging
+    dirty pages.
+
+  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_GET_BITMAP* requests from the server to return
+    the dirty bitmap for a specific IOVA range. The IOVA range is specified by
+    "VFIO dirty bitmap get" structure, which must immediatelly follow the
+    "VFIO dirty bitmap" structure, explained next. This operation is only valid
+    if logging of dirty pages has been previously started. The server must
+    respond the same way it does for VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP (the dirty pages
+    bitmap must follow the response header).
+
+  These flags are mutually exclusive with each other.
+
+* *data* This field is unused in vfio-user.
+
+VFIO Dirty Bitmap Get Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------+--------+------+
+| Name   | Offset | Size |
++========+========+======+
+| iova   | 0      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| size   | 8      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| bitmap | 16     | 24   |
++--------+--------+------+
+
+* *iova* is the IOVA offset
+
+* *size* is the size of the IOVA region
+
+* *bitmap* is the VFIO bitmap (``struct vfio_bitmap``), with the same semantics
+  as VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP.
+
+
+Appendices
+==========
+
+Unused VFIO ioctl() commands
+----------------------------
+
+The following VFIO commands do not have an equivalent vfio-user command:
+
+* VFIO_GET_API_VERSION
+* VFIO_CHECK_EXTENSION
+* VFIO_SET_IOMMU
+* VFIO_GROUP_GET_STATUS
+* VFIO_GROUP_SET_CONTAINER
+* VFIO_GROUP_UNSET_CONTAINER
+* VFIO_GROUP_GET_DEVICE_FD
+* VFIO_IOMMU_GET_INFO
+
+However, once support for live migration for VFIO devices is finalized some
+of the above commands may have to be handled by the client in their
+corresponding vfio-user form. This will be addressed in a future protocol
+version.
+
+VFIO groups and containers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The current VFIO implementation includes group and container idioms that
+describe how a device relates to the host IOMMU. In the vfio-user
+implementation, the IOMMU is implemented in SW by the client, and is not
+visible to the server. The simplest idea would be that the client put each
+device into its own group and container.
+
+Backend Program Conventions
+---------------------------
+
+vfio-user backend program conventions are based on the vhost-user ones.
+
+* The backend program must not daemonize itself.
+* No assumptions must be made as to what access the backend program has on the
+  system.
+* File descriptors 0, 1 and 2 must exist, must have regular
+  stdin/stdout/stderr semantics, and can be redirected.
+* The backend program must honor the SIGTERM signal.
+* The backend program must accept the following commands line options:
+
+  * ``--socket-path=PATH``: path to UNIX domain socket,
+  * ``--fd=FDNUM``: file descriptor for UNIX domain socket, incompatible with
+    ``--socket-path``
+* The backend program must be accompanied with a JSON file stored under
+  ``/usr/share/vfio-user``.
-- 
2.12.2


Re: [PATCH v7] introduce vfio-user protocol specification

Posted by Marc-André Lureau 9 months, 3 weeks ago
Hi

On Mon, Nov 30, 2020 at 8:14 PM Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>
wrote:

> This patch introduces the vfio-user protocol specification (formerly
> known as VFIO-over-socket), which is designed to allow devices to be
> emulated outside QEMU, in a separate process. vfio-user reuses the
> existing VFIO defines, structs and concepts.
>
> It has been earlier discussed as an RFC in:
> "RFC: use VFIO over a UNIX domain socket to implement device offloading"
>
> Signed-off-by: John G Johnson <john.g.johnson@oracle.com>
> Signed-off-by: Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>
>
>
I am taking a superficial look, as I don't have much experience from
implementing it (recently).

---
>
> Changed since v1:
>   * fix coding style issues
>   * update MAINTAINERS for VFIO-over-socket
>   * add vfio-over-socket to ToC
>
> Changed since v2:
>   * fix whitespace
>
> Changed since v3:
>   * rename protocol to vfio-user
>   * add table of contents
>   * fix Unicode problems
>   * fix typos and various reStructuredText issues
>   * various stylistic improvements
>   * add backend program conventions
>   * rewrite part of intro, drop QEMU-specific stuff
>   * drop QEMU-specific paragraph about implementation
>   * explain that passing of FDs isn't necessary
>   * minor improvements in the VFIO section
>   * various text substitutions for the sake of consistency
>   * drop paragraph about client and server, already explained in
>   * intro
>   * drop device ID
>   * drop type from version
>   * elaborate on request concurrency
>   * convert some inessential paragraphs into notes
>   * explain why some existing VFIO defines cannot be reused
>   * explain how to make changes to the protocol
>   * improve text of DMA map
>   * reword comment about existing VFIO commands
>   * add reference to Version section
>   * reset device on disconnection
>   * reword live migration section
>   * replace sys/vfio.h with linux/vfio.h
>   * drop reference to iovec
>   * use argz the same way it is used in VFIO
>   * add type field in header for clarity
>
> Changed since v4:
>   * introduce support for live migration as defined in
>   * include/uapi/linux/vfio.h
>   * introduce 'max_fds' and 'migration' capabilities:
>   * remove 'index' from VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO
>   * fix minor typos and reworded some text for clarity
>
> Changed since v5:
>   * fix minor typos
>   * separate VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP and VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP
>   * clarify meaning of VFIO bitmap size field
>   * move version major/minor outside JSON
>   * client proposes version first
>

What was the rationale? (See below)

  * make Errno optional in message header
>   * clarification about message ID uniqueness
>   * clarify that server->client request can appear in between
>     client->server request/reply
>
> Changed since v6:
>   * put JSON strings in double quotes
>   * clarify reply behavior on error
>   * introduce max message size capability
>   * clarify semantics when failing to map multiple DMA regions in a
>     single command
>
> You can focus on v6 to v7 changes by cloning my fork
> (https://github.com/tmakatos/qemu) and doing:
>
>         git diff refs/tags/vfio-user/v6 refs/heads/vfio-user/v7
> ---
>  MAINTAINERS              |    6 +
>  docs/devel/index.rst     |    1 +
>  docs/devel/vfio-user.rst | 1662
> ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  3 files changed, 1669 insertions(+)
>  create mode 100644 docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
>
> diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
> index 68bc160f41..6a4c662976 100644
> --- a/MAINTAINERS
> +++ b/MAINTAINERS
> @@ -1766,6 +1766,12 @@ F: hw/vfio/ap.c
>  F: docs/system/s390x/vfio-ap.rst
>  L: qemu-s390x@nongnu.org
>
> +vfio-user
> +M: John G Johnson <john.g.johnson@oracle.com>
> +M: Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>
> +S: Supported
> +F: docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
> +
>  vhost
>  M: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>
>  S: Supported
> diff --git a/docs/devel/index.rst b/docs/devel/index.rst
> index f10ed77e4c..2e2cba28c6 100644
> --- a/docs/devel/index.rst
> +++ b/docs/devel/index.rst
> @@ -35,3 +35,4 @@ Contents:
>     clocks
>     qom
>     block-coroutine-wrapper
> +   vfio-user
> diff --git a/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst b/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
> new file mode 100644
> index 0000000000..d15a228a1a
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
> @@ -0,0 +1,1662 @@
> +.. include:: <isonum.txt>
> +
> +********************************
> +vfio-user Protocol Specification
> +********************************
> +
> +------------
> +Version_ 0.1
> +------------
> +
> +.. contents:: Table of Contents
> +
> +Introduction
> +============
> +vfio-user is a protocol that allows a device to be emulated in a separate
> +process outside of a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM). vfio-user devices
> consist
> +of a generic VFIO device type, living inside the VMM, which we call the
> client,
> +and the core device implementation, living outside the VMM, which we call
> the
> +server.
> +
> +The `Linux VFIO ioctl interface <
> https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/driver-api/vfio.html>`_
> +been chosen as the base for this protocol for the following reasons:
> +
> +1) It is a mature and stable API, backed by an extensively used framework.
> +2) The existing VFIO client implementation in QEMU (qemu/hw/vfio/) can be
> +   largely reused.
> +
> +.. Note::
> +   In a proof of concept implementation it has been demonstrated that
> using VFIO
> +   over a UNIX domain socket is a viable option. vfio-user is designed
> with
> +   QEMU in mind, however it could be used by other client applications.
> The
> +   vfio-user protocol does not require that QEMU's VFIO client
> implementation
> +   is used in QEMU.
> +
> +None of the VFIO kernel modules are required for supporting the protocol,
> +neither in the client nor the server, only the source header files are
> used.
> +
> +The main idea is to allow a virtual device to function in a separate
> process in
> +the same host over a UNIX domain socket. A UNIX domain socket (AF_UNIX) is
> +chosen because file descriptors can be trivially sent over it, which in
> turn
> +allows:
> +
> +* Sharing of client memory for DMA with the server.
> +* Sharing of server memory with the client for fast MMIO.
> +* Efficient sharing of eventfd's for triggering interrupts.
> +
> +Other socket types could be used which allow the server to run in a
> separate
> +guest in the same host (AF_VSOCK) or remotely (AF_INET). Theoretically the
> +underlying transport does not necessarily have to be a socket, however we
> do
> +not examine such alternatives. In this protocol version we focus on using
> a
> +UNIX domain socket and introduce basic support for the other two types of
> +sockets without considering performance implications.
> +
> +While passing of file descriptors is desirable for performance reasons,
> it is
> +not necessary neither for the client nor for the server to support it in
> order
> +to implement the protocol. There is always an in-band, message-passing
> fall
> +back mechanism.
> +
> +VFIO
> +====
> +VFIO is a framework that allows a physical device to be securely passed
> through
> +to a user space process; the device-specific kernel driver does not drive
> the
> +device at all.  Typically, the user space process is a VMM and the device
> is
> +passed through to it in order to achieve high performance. VFIO provides
> an API
> +and the required functionality in the kernel. QEMU has adopted VFIO to
> allow a
> +guest to directly access physical devices, instead of emulating them in
> +software.
> +
> +vfio-user reuses the core VFIO concepts defined in its API, but
> implements them
> +as messages to be sent over a socket. It does not change the kernel-based
> VFIO
> +in any way, in fact none of the VFIO kernel modules need to be loaded to
> use
> +vfio-user. It is also possible for the client to concurrently use the
> current
> +kernel-based VFIO for one device, and vfio-user for another device.
> +
> +VFIO Device Model
> +-----------------
> +A device under VFIO presents a standard interface to the user process.
> Many of
> +the VFIO operations in the existing interface use the ioctl() system
> call, and
> +references to the existing interface are called the ioctl()
> implementation in
> +this document.
> +
> +The following sections describe the set of messages that implement the
> VFIO
> +interface over a socket. In many cases, the messages are direct
> translations of
> +data structures used in the ioctl() implementation. Messages derived from
> +ioctl()s will have a name derived from the ioctl() command name.  E.g.,
> the
> +VFIO_GET_INFO ioctl() command becomes a VFIO_USER_GET_INFO message.  The
> +purpose of this reuse is to share as much code as feasible with the
> ioctl()
> +implementation.
> +
> +Connection Initiation
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +After the client connects to the server, the initial server message is
> +VFIO_USER_VERSION to propose a protocol version and set of capabilities to
> +apply to the session. The client replies with a compatible version and
> set of
> +capabilities it supports, or closes the connection if it cannot support
> the
> +advertised version.
>

Ok, so the server announces first. (it makes sense to me, as the client is
more adjustable than the server - and it allows to discover server caps)

+
> +DMA Memory Configuration
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +The client uses VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP and VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP messages to
> inform
> +the server of the valid DMA ranges that the server can access on behalf
> +of a device. DMA memory may be accessed by the server via
> VFIO_USER_DMA_READ
> +and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages over the socket.
> +
> +An optimization for server access to client memory is for the client to
> provide
> +file descriptors the server can mmap() to directly access client memory.
> Note
> +that mmap() privileges cannot be revoked by the client, therefore file
> +descriptors should only be exported in environments where the client
> trusts the
> +server not to corrupt guest memory.
> +
> +Device Information
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +The client uses a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO message to query the server
> for
> +information about the device. This information includes:
> +
> +* The device type and whether it supports reset (``VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_``),
> +* the number of device regions, and
> +* the device presents to the client the number of interrupt types the
> device
> +  supports.
> +
> +Region Information
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +The client uses VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO messages to query the
> server
> +for information about the device's memory regions. This information
> describes:
> +
> +* Read and write permissions, whether it can be memory mapped, and
> whether it
> +  supports additional capabilities (``VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_``).
> +* Region index, size, and offset.
> +
> +When a region can be mapped by the client, the server provides a file
> +descriptor which the client can mmap(). The server is responsible for
> polling
> +for client updates to memory mapped regions.
> +
> +Region Capabilities
> +"""""""""""""""""""
> +Some regions have additional capabilities that cannot be described
> adequately
> +by the region info data structure. These capabilities are returned in the
> +region info reply in a list similar to PCI capabilities in a PCI device's
> +configuration space.
> +
> +Sparse Regions
> +""""""""""""""
> +A region can be memory-mappable in whole or in part. When only a subset
> of a
> +region can be mapped by the client, a VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_SPARSE_MMAP
> +capability is included in the region info reply. This capability describes
> +which portions can be mapped by the client.
> +
> +.. Note::
> +   For example, in a virtual NVMe controller, sparse regions can be used
> so
> +   that accesses to the NVMe registers (found in the beginning of BAR0)
> are
> +   trapped (an infrequent event), while allowing direct access to the
> doorbells
> +   (an extremely frequent event as every I/O submission requires a write
> to
> +   BAR0), found right after the NVMe registers in BAR0.
> +
> +Device-Specific Regions
> +"""""""""""""""""""""""
> +
> +A device can define regions additional to the standard ones (e.g. PCI
> indexes
> +0-8). This is achieved by including a VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_TYPE capability
> +in the region info reply of a device-specific region. Such regions are
> reflected
> +in ``struct vfio_device_info.num_regions``. Thus, for PCI devices this
> value can
> +be equal to, or higher than, VFIO_PCI_NUM_REGIONS.
> +
> +Interrupts
> +^^^^^^^^^^
> +The client uses VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO messages to query the
> server for
> +the device's interrupt types. The interrupt types are specific to the bus
> the
> +device is attached to, and the client is expected to know the
> capabilities of
> +each interrupt type. The server can signal an interrupt either with
> +VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT messages over the socket, or can directly inject
> +interrupts into the guest via an event file descriptor. The client
> configures
> +how the server signals an interrupt with VFIO_USER_SET_IRQS messages.
> +
> +Device Read and Write
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +When the guest executes load or store operations to device memory, the
> client
> +forwards these operations to the server with VFIO_USER_REGION_READ or
> +VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE messages. The server will reply with data from the
> +device on read operations or an acknowledgement on write operations.
> +
> +DMA
> +^^^
> +When a device performs DMA accesses to guest memory, the server will
> forward
> +them to the client with VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE
> messages.
> +These messages can only be used to access guest memory the client has
> +configured into the server.
> +
> +Protocol Specification
> +======================
> +To distinguish from the base VFIO symbols, all vfio-user symbols are
> prefixed
> +with vfio_user or VFIO_USER. In revision 0.1, all data is in the
> little-endian
> +format, although this may be relaxed in future revision in cases where the
> +client and server are both big-endian. The messages are formatted for
> seamless
> +reuse of the native VFIO structs.
> +
> +Socket
> +------
> +
> +A server can serve:
> +
> +1) one or more clients, and/or
> +2) one or more virtual devices, belonging to one or more clients.
> +
> +The current protocol specification requires a dedicated socket per
> +client/server connection. It is a server-side implementation detail
> whether a
> +single server handles multiple virtual devices from the same or multiple
> +clients. The location of the socket is implementation-specific.
> Multiplexing
> +clients, devices, and servers over the same socket is not supported in
> this
> +version of the protocol.
> +
> +Authentication
> +--------------
> +For AF_UNIX, we rely on OS mandatory access controls on the socket files,
> +therefore it is up to the management layer to set up the socket as
> required.
> +Socket types than span guests or hosts will require a proper
> authentication
> +mechanism. Defining that mechanism is deferred to a future version of the
> +protocol.
> +
> +Command Concurrency
> +-------------------
> +A client may pipeline multiple commands without waiting for previous
> command
> +replies.  The server will process commands in the order they are
> received.  A
> +consequence of this is if a client issues a command with the *No_reply*
> bit,
> +then subseqently issues a command without *No_reply*, the older command
> will
> +have been processed before the reply to the younger command is sent by the
> +server.  The client must be aware of the device's capability to process
> +concurrent commands if pipelining is used.  For example, pipelining allows
> +multiple client threads to concurently access device memory; the client
> must
> +ensure these acceses obey device semantics.
> +
> +An example is a frame buffer device, where the device may allow concurrent
> +access to different areas of video memory, but may have indeterminate
> behavior
> +if concurrent acceses are performed to command or status registers.
> +
> +Note that unrelated messages sent from the sevrer to the client can
> appear in
> +between a client to server request/reply and vice versa.
> +
> +Socket Disconnection Behavior
> +-----------------------------
> +The server and the client can disconnect from each other, either
> intentionally
> +or unexpectedly. Both the client and the server need to know how to
> handle such
> +events.
> +
> +Server Disconnection
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +A server disconnecting from the client may indicate that:
> +
> +1) A virtual device has been restarted, either intentionally (e.g.
> because of a
> +   device update) or unintentionally (e.g. because of a crash).
> +2) A virtual device has been shut down with no intention to be restarted.
> +
> +It is impossible for the client to know whether or not a failure is
> +intermittent or innocuous and should be retried, therefore the client
> should
> +reset the VFIO device when it detects the socket has been disconnected.
> +Error recovery will be driven by the guest's device error handling
> +behavior.
> +
> +Client Disconnection
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +The client disconnecting from the server primarily means that the client
> +has exited. Currently, this means that the guest is shut down so the
> device is
> +no longer needed therefore the server can automatically exit. However,
> there
> +can be cases where a client disconnection should not result in a server
> exit:
> +
> +1) A single server serving multiple clients.
> +2) A multi-process QEMU upgrading itself step by step, which is not yet
> +   implemented.
> +
> +Therefore in order for the protocol to be forward compatible the server
> should
> +take no action when the client disconnects. If anything happens to the
> client
> +the control stack will know about it and can clean up resources
> +accordingly.
> +
> +Request Retry and Response Timeout
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +A failed command is a command that has been successfully sent and has been
> +responded to with an error code. Failure to send the command in the first
> place
> +(e.g. because the socket is disconnected) is a different type of error
> examined
> +earlier in the disconnect section.
> +
> +.. Note::
> +   QEMU's VFIO retries certain operations if they fail. While this makes
> sense
> +   for real HW, we don't know for sure whether it makes sense for virtual
> +   devices.
> +
> +Defining a retry and timeout scheme is deferred to a future version of the
> +protocol.
> +
> +.. _Commands:
> +
> +Commands
> +--------
> +The following table lists the VFIO message command IDs, and whether the
> +message command is sent from the client or the server.
> +
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| Name                             | Command | Request Direction |
> ++==================================+=========+===================+
> +| VFIO_USER_VERSION                | 1       | server -> client  |
>

ok

++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP                | 2       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP              | 3       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO        | 4       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO | 5       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO    | 6       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS        | 7       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_REGION_READ            | 8       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE           | 9       | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DMA_READ               | 10      | server -> client  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE              | 11      | server -> client  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT           | 12      | server -> client  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET           | 13      | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +| VFIO_USER_DIRTY_PAGES            | 14      | client -> server  |
> ++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
> +
> +
> +.. Note:: Some VFIO defines cannot be reused since their values are
> +   architecture-specific (e.g. VFIO_IOMMU_MAP_DMA).
> +
> +Header
> +------
> +All messages, both command messages and reply messages, are preceded by a
> +header that contains basic information about the message. The header is
> +followed by message-specific data described in the sections below.
> +
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Name           | Offset | Size        |
> ++================+========+=============+
> +| Message ID     | 0      | 2           |
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Command        | 2      | 2           |
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Message size   | 4      | 4           |
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Flags          | 8      | 4           |
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +|                | +-----+------------+ |
> +|                | | Bit | Definition | |
> +|                | +=====+============+ |
> +|                | | 0-3 | Type       | |
> +|                | +-----+------------+ |
> +|                | | 4   | No_reply   | |
> +|                | +-----+------------+ |
> +|                | | 5   | Error      | |
> +|                | +-----+------------+ |
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Error          | 12     | 4           |
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +| <message data> | 16     | variable    |
> ++----------------+--------+-------------+
> +
> +* *Message ID* identifies the message, and is echoed in the command's
> reply
> +  message. Message IDs belong entirely to the sender, can be re-used (even
> +  concurrently) and the receiver must not make any assumptions about their
> +  uniqueness.
> +* *Command* specifies the command to be executed, listed in Commands_.
> +* *Message size* contains the size of the entire message, including the
> header.
> +* *Flags* contains attributes of the message:
> +
> +  * The *Type* bits indicate the message type.
> +
> +    *  *Command* (value 0x0) indicates a command message.
> +    *  *Reply* (value 0x1) indicates a reply message acknowledging a
> previous
> +       command with the same message ID.
> +  * *No_reply* in a command message indicates that no reply is needed for
> this command.
> +    This is commonly used when multiple commands are sent, and only the
> last needs
> +    acknowledgement.
> +  * *Error* in a reply message indicates the command being acknowledged
> had
> +    an error. In this case, the *Error* field will be valid.
> +
> +* *Error* in a reply message is an optional UNIX errno value. It may be
> zero
> +  even if the Error bit is set in Flags. It is reserved in a command
> message.
> +
> +Each command message in Commands_ must be replied to with a reply
> message, unless the
> +message sets the *No_Reply* bit.  The reply consists of the header with
> the *Reply*
> +bit set, plus any additional data.
> +
> +If an error occurs, the reply message must only include the reply header.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_VERSION
> +-----------------
> +
> +This is the initial message sent by the client after the socket
> connection is
> +established:
>


Contradictory with the above.

+
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                                     |
> ++==============+===========================================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                                      |
> ++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
> +| Command      | 1                                         |
> ++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
> +| Message size | 16 + version header + version data length |
> ++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply                    |
> ++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                                   |
> ++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
> +| Version      | version header                            |
> ++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
> +
> +Version Header Format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
>
> ++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
> +| Name          | Offset | Size
>  |
>
> ++===============+========+================================================+
> +| version major | 16     | 2
> |
>
> ++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
> +| version minor | 18     | 2
> |
>
> ++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
> +| version data  | 22     | variable (including terminating NUL
> |
> +|               |        | character). Optional.
> |
>
> ++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
>


Annoying that this version won't be easily human-readable. (you can't
simply netcat to a vfio server and get the version)
iirc, earlier versions of the proposal just sent a json message straight
without a header.

This initial text-phase is imho more interesting, as the binary protocol
requirements are mostly for machine-convenience and performance reasons
when the device is actually running.

+
> +Version Data Format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> +The version data is an optional JSON byte array with the following format:
> +
>
> ++--------------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
> +| Name               | Type             | Description
>    |
>
> ++====================+==================+===================================+
> +| ``"capabilities"`` | collection of    | Contains common capabilities
> that |
> +|                    | name/value pairs | the sender supports. Optional.
>   |
>
> ++--------------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
> +
> +Capabilities:
> +
>
> ++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
> +| Name               | Type             | Description
>      |
>
> ++====================+==================+=====================================+
> +| ``"max_fds"``      | number           | Maximum number of file
> descriptors  |
> +|                    |                  | the can be received by the
> sender.  |
> +|                    |                  | Optional. If not specified then
> the |
> +|                    |                  | receiver must assume
>     |
> +|                    |                  | ``"max_fds"=1``.
>     |
>
> ++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
> +| ``"max_msg_size"`` | number           | Maximum message size in bytes
> that  |
> +|                    |                  | the receiver can handle,
> including  |
> +|                    |                  | the header. Optional. If not
>     |
> +|                    |                  | specified then the receiver
> must    |
> +|                    |                  | assume
> ``"max_msg_size"=4096``.     |
>
> ++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
> +| ``"migration"``    | collection of    | Migration capability
> parameters. If |
> +|                    | name/value pairs | missing then migration is not
>      |
> +|                    |                  | supported by the sender.
>     |
>
> ++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
> +
> +The migration capability contains the following name/value pairs:
> +
> ++--------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------+
> +| Name         | Type   | Description                                   |
> ++==============+========+===============================================+
> +| ``"pgsize"`` | number | Page size of dirty pages bitmap. The smallest |
> +|              |        | between the client and the server is used.    |
> ++--------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------+
> +
> +
> +.. _Version:
> +
> +Versioning and Feature Support
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +Upon accepting a connection, the client must send a VFIO_USER_VERSION
> message
> +proposing a protocol version and a set of capabilities. The server
> compares
> +these with the versions and capabilities it supports and sends a
> +VFIO_USER_VERSION reply according to the following rules.
>

I don't think the server will be as adaptable as the client. Again, it
feels backward to me.

+
> +* The major version in the reply must be the same as proposed. If the
> client
> +  does not support the proposed major, it closes the connection.
> +* The minor version in the reply must be equal to or less than the minor
> +  version proposed.
> +* The capability list must be a subset of those proposed. If the server
> +  requires a capability the client did not include, it closes the
> connection.
> +
> +The protocol major version will only change when incompatible protocol
> changes
> +are made, such as changing the message format. The minor version may
> change
> +when compatible changes are made, such as adding new messages or
> capabilities,
> +Both the client and server must support all minor versions less than the
> +maximum minor version it supports. E.g., an implementation that supports
> +version 1.3 must also support 1.0 through 1.2.
> +
> +When making a change to this specification, the protocol version number
> must
> +be included in the form "added in version X.Y"
> +
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP
> +-----------------
> +
> +Message Format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 2                      |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 16 + table size        |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Table        | array of table entries |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent by the client to the server to inform it of
> the
> +memory regions the server can access. It must be sent before the server
> can
> +perform any DMA to the client. It is normally sent directly after the
> version
> +handshake is completed, but may also occur when memory is added to the
> client,
> +or if the client uses a vIOMMU. If the client does not expect the server
> to
> +perform DMA then it does not need to send to the server VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP
> +commands. If the server does not need to perform DMA then it can ignore
> such
> +commands but it must still reply to them. The table is an array of the
> +following structure:
> +
> +Table entry format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++-------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Name        | Offset | Size        |
> ++=============+========+=============+
> +| Address     | 0      | 8           |
> ++-------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Size        | 8      | 8           |
> ++-------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Offset      | 16     | 8           |
> ++-------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Protections | 24     | 4           |
> ++-------------+--------+-------------+
> +| Flags       | 28     | 4           |
> ++-------------+--------+-------------+
> +|             | +-----+------------+ |
> +|             | | Bit | Definition | |
> +|             | +=====+============+ |
> +|             | | 0   | Mappable   | |
> +|             | +-----+------------+ |
> ++-------------+--------+-------------+
> +
> +* *Address* is the base DMA address of the region.
> +* *Size* is the size of the region.
> +* *Offset* is the file offset of the region with respect to the
> associated file
> +  descriptor.
> +* *Protections* are the region's protection attributes as encoded in
> +  ``<sys/mman.h>``.
> +* *Flags* contains the following region attributes:
> +
> +  * *Mappable* indicates that the region can be mapped via the mmap()
> system
> +    call using the file descriptor provided in the message meta-data.
> +
> +This structure is 32 bytes in size, so the message size is:
> +16 + (# of table entries * 32).
> +
> +If a DMA region being added can be directly mapped by the server, an
> array of
> +file descriptors must be sent as part of the message meta-data. Each
> mappable
> +region entry must have a corresponding file descriptor. On AF_UNIX
> sockets, the
> +file descriptors must be passed as SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data.
> Otherwise,
> +if a DMA region cannot be directly mapped by the server, it can be
> accessed by
> +the server using VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages,
> explained
> +in `Read and Write Operations`_. A command to map over an existing region
> must
> +be failed by the server with ``EEXIST`` set in error field in the reply.
> +
> +Adding multiple DMA regions can partially fail. The response does not
> indicate
> +which regions were added and which were not, therefore it is a client
> +implementation detail how to recover from the failure.
> +
> +.. Note::
> +   The server can optionally remove succesfully added DMA regions making
> this
> +   operation atomic.
> +   The client can recover by attempting to unmap one by one all the DMA
> regions
> +   in the VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP command, ignoring failures for regions that
> do not
> +   exist.
> +
> +
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP
> +-------------------
> +
> +Message Format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 3                      |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 16 + table size        |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Table        | array of table entries |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent by the client to the server to inform it
> that a
> +DMA region, previously made available via a VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP command
> message,
> +is no longer available for DMA. It typically occurs when memory is
> subtracted
> +from the client or if the client uses a vIOMMU. If the client does not
> expect
> +the server to perform DMA then it does not need to send to the server
> +VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP commands. If the server does not need to perform DMA
> then
> +it can ignore such commands but it must still reply to them. The table is
> an
> +array of the following structure:
> +
> +Table entry format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +| Name         | Offset | Size                                  |
> ++==============+========+=======================================+
> +| Address      | 0      | 8                                     |
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +| Size         | 8      | 8                                     |
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +| Offset       | 16     | 8                                     |
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +| Protections  | 24     | 4                                     |
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +| Flags        | 28     | 4                                     |
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +|              | +-----+--------------------------------------+ |
> +|              | | Bit | Definition                           | |
> +|              | +=====+======================================+ |
> +|              | | 0   | VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP | |
> +|              | +-----+--------------------------------------+ |
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +| VFIO Bitmaps | 32     | variable                              |
> ++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
> +
> +* *Address* is the base DMA address of the region.
> +* *Size* is the size of the region.
> +* *Offset* is the file offset of the region with respect to the
> associated file
> +  descriptor.
> +* *Protections* are the region's protection attributes as encoded in
> +  ``<sys/mman.h>``.
> +* *Flags* contains the following region attributes:
> +
> +  * *VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP* indicates that a dirty page
> bitmap
> +    must be populated before unmapping the DMA region. The client must
> provide
> +    a ``struct vfio_bitmap`` in the VFIO bitmaps field for each region,
> with
> +    the ``vfio_bitmap.pgsize`` and ``vfio_bitmap.size`` fields
> initialized.
> +
> +* *VFIO Bitmaps* contains one ``struct vfio_bitmap`` per region if
> +  ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is set in Flags.
> +
> +VFIO bitmap format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +| Name   | Offset | Size |
> ++========+========+======+
> +| pgsize | 0      | 8    |
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +| size   | 8      | 8    |
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +| data   | 16     | 8    |
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +
> +* *pgsize* is the page size for the bitmap, in bytes.
> +* *size* is the size for the bitmap, in bytes, excluding the VFIO bitmap
> header.
> +* *data* This field is unused in vfio-user.
> +
> +The VFIO bitmap structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
> +(``struct vfio_bitmap``).
> +
> +If ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is not set in Flags then the
> size
> +of the message is: 16 + (# of table entries * 32).
> +If ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is set in Flags then the size
> of
> +the message is: 16 + (# of table entries * 56).
> +
> +Upon receiving a VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP command, if the file descriptor is
> mapped
> +then the server must release all references to that DMA region before
> replying,
> +which includes potentially in flight DMA transactions. Removing a portion
> of a
> +DMA region is possible. If the VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP bit
> is set
> +in the request, the server must append to the header the ``struct
> vfio_bitmap``
> +received in the command followed by the bitmap, for each region. Thus, the
> +message size the client should expect is the size of the header plus the
> size
> +of ``struct vfio_bitmap`` plus ``vfio_bitmap.size`` bytes for each
> region. Each
> +bit in the bitmap represents one page of size ``vfio_bitmap.pgsize``.
> +
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO
> +-------------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+----------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                      |
> ++==============+============================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                       |
> ++--------------+----------------------------+
> +| Command      | 4                          |
> ++--------------+----------------------------+
> +| Message size | 16 in command, 32 in reply |
> ++--------------+----------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply     |
> ++--------------+----------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                    |
> ++--------------+----------------------------+
> +| Device info  | VFIO device info           |
> ++--------------+----------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for
> basic
> +information about the device. Only the message header is needed in the
> command
> +message.  The VFIO device info structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
> +(``struct vfio_device_info``).
> +
> +VFIO device info format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
> +| Name        | Offset | Size                     |
> ++=============+========+==========================+
> +| argsz       | 16     | 4                        |
> ++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
> +| flags       | 20     | 4                        |
> ++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
> +|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
> +|             | | Bit | Definition              | |
> +|             | +=====+=========================+ |
> +|             | | 0   | VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_RESET | |
> +|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
> +|             | | 1   | VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_PCI   | |
> +|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
> ++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
> +| num_regions | 24     | 4                        |
> ++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
> +| num_irqs    | 28     | 4                        |
> ++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
> +
> +* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO device info structure.
> +* *flags* contains the following device attributes.
> +
> +  * VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_RESET indicates that the device supports the
> +    VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET message.
> +  * VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_PCI indicates that the device is a PCI device.
> +
> +* *num_regions* is the number of memory regions that the device exposes.
> +* *num_irqs* is the number of distinct interrupt types that the device
> supports.
> +
> +This version of the protocol only supports PCI devices. Additional
> devices may
> +be supported in future versions.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO
> +--------------------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 5                      |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 48 + any caps          |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Region info  | VFIO region info       |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for
> +information about device memory regions. The VFIO region info structure is
> +defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_region_info``). Since the
> client
> +does not know the size of the capabilities, the size of the reply it
> should
> +expect is 48 plus any capabilities whose size is indicated in the size
> field of
> +the reply header.
> +
> +VFIO region info format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| Name       | Offset | Size                         |
> ++============+========+==============================+
> +| argsz      | 16     | 4                            |
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| flags      | 20     | 4                            |
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|            | | Bit | Definition                  | |
> +|            | +=====+=============================+ |
> +|            | | 0   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_READ  | |
> +|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|            | | 1   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_WRITE | |
> +|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|            | | 2   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_MMAP  | |
> +|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|            | | 3   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_CAPS  | |
> +|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| index      | 24     | 4                            |
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| cap_offset | 28     | 4                            |
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| size       | 32     | 8                            |
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| offset     | 40     | 8                            |
> ++------------+--------+------------------------------+
> +
> +* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO region info structure plus the
> +  size of any region capabilities returned.
> +* *flags* are attributes of the region:
> +
> +  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_READ* allows client read access to the region.
> +  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_WRITE* allows client write access to the
> region.
> +  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_MMAP* specifies the client can mmap() the
> region.
> +    When this flag is set, the reply will include a file descriptor in its
> +    meta-data. On AF_UNIX sockets, the file descriptors will be passed as
> +    SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data.
> +  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_CAPS* indicates additional capabilities found
> in the
> +    reply.
> +
> +* *index* is the index of memory region being queried, it is the only
> field
> +  that is required to be set in the command message.
> +* *cap_offset* describes where additional region capabilities can be
> found.
> +  cap_offset is relative to the beginning of the VFIO region info
> structure.
> +  The data structure it points is a VFIO cap header defined in
> +  ``<linux/vfio.h>``.
> +* *size* is the size of the region.
> +* *offset* is the offset given to the mmap() system call for regions with
> the
> +  MMAP attribute. It is also used as the base offset when mapping a VFIO
> +  sparse mmap area, described below.
> +
> +VFIO Region capabilities
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +The VFIO region information can also include a capabilities list. This
> list is
> +similar to a PCI capability list - each entry has a common header that
> +identifies a capability and where the next capability in the list can be
> found.
> +The VFIO capability header format is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
> (``struct
> +vfio_info_cap_header``).
> +
> +VFIO cap header format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++---------+--------+------+
> +| Name    | Offset | Size |
> ++=========+========+======+
> +| id      | 0      | 2    |
> ++---------+--------+------+
> +| version | 2      | 2    |
> ++---------+--------+------+
> +| next    | 4      | 4    |
> ++---------+--------+------+
> +
> +* *id* is the capability identity.
> +* *version* is a capability-specific version number.
> +* *next* specifies the offset of the next capability in the capability
> list. It
> +  is relative to the beginning of the VFIO region info structure.
> +
> +VFIO sparse mmap
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++------------------+----------------------------------+
> +| Name             | Value                            |
> ++==================+==================================+
> +| id               | VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_SPARSE_MMAP |
> ++------------------+----------------------------------+
> +| version          | 0x1                              |
> ++------------------+----------------------------------+
> +| next             | <next>                           |
> ++------------------+----------------------------------+
> +| sparse mmap info | VFIO region info sparse mmap     |
> ++------------------+----------------------------------+
> +
> +This capability is defined when only a subrange of the region supports
> +direct access by the client via mmap(). The VFIO sparse mmap area is
> defined in
> +``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_region_sparse_mmap_area``).
> +
> +VFIO region info cap sparse mmap
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> ++----------+--------+------+
> +| Name     | Offset | Size |
> ++==========+========+======+
> +| nr_areas | 0      | 4    |
> ++----------+--------+------+
> +| reserved | 4      | 4    |
> ++----------+--------+------+
> +| offset   | 8      | 8    |
> ++----------+--------+------+
> +| size     | 16     | 9    |
> ++----------+--------+------+
> +| ...      |        |      |
> ++----------+--------+------+
> +
> +* *nr_areas* is the number of sparse mmap areas in the region.
> +* *offset* and size describe a single area that can be mapped by the
> client.
> +  There will be nr_areas pairs of offset and size. The offset will be
> added to
> +  the base offset given in the VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO to form
> the
> +  offset argument of the subsequent mmap() call.
> +
> +The VFIO sparse mmap area is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct
> +vfio_region_info_cap_sparse_mmap``).
> +
> +VFIO Region Type
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++------------------+---------------------------+
> +| Name             | Value                     |
> ++==================+===========================+
> +| id               | VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_TYPE |
> ++------------------+---------------------------+
> +| version          | 0x1                       |
> ++------------------+---------------------------+
> +| next             | <next>                    |
> ++------------------+---------------------------+
> +| region info type | VFIO region info type     |
> ++------------------+---------------------------+
> +
> +This capability is defined when a region is specific to the device.
> +
> +VFIO region info type
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> +The VFIO region info type is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
> +(``struct vfio_region_info_cap_type``).
> +
> ++---------+--------+------+
> +| Name    | Offset | Size |
> ++=========+========+======+
> +| type    | 0      | 4    |
> ++---------+--------+------+
> +| subtype | 4      | 4    |
> ++---------+--------+------+
> +
> +The only device-specific region type and subtype supported by vfio-user is
> +VFIO_REGION_TYPE_MIGRATION (3) and VFIO_REGION_SUBTYPE_MIGRATION (1).
> +
> +VFIO Device Migration Info
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> +The beginning of the subregion must contain
> +``struct vfio_device_migration_info``, defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``. This
> +subregion is accessed like any other part of a standard vfio-user PCI
> region
> +using VFIO_USER_REGION_READ/VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE.
> +
> ++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
> +| Name          | Offset | Size                        |
> ++===============+========+=============================+
> +| device_state  | 0      | 4                           |
> ++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
> +|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
> +|               | | Bit | Definition                 | |
> +|               | +=====+============================+ |
> +|               | | 0   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RUNNING  | |
> +|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
> +|               | | 1   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_SAVING   | |
> +|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
> +|               | | 2   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RESUMING | |
> +|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
> ++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
> +| reserved      | 4      | 4                           |
> ++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
> +| pending_bytes | 8      | 8                           |
> ++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
> +| data_offset   | 16     | 8                           |
> ++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
> +| data_size     | 24     | 8                           |
> ++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
> +
> +* *device_state* defines the state of the device:
> +
> +  The client initiates device state transition by writing the intended
> state.
> +  The server must respond only after it has succesfully transitioned to
> the new
> +  state. If an error occurs then the server must respond to the
> +  VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE operation with the Error field set accordingly
> and
> +  must remain at the previous state, or in case of internal error it must
> +  transtition to the error state, defined as
> +  VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RESUMING | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_SAVING. The client must
> +  re-read the device state in order to determine it afresh.
> +
> +  The following device states are defined:
> +
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | _RESUMING | _SAVING | _RUNNING | Description                       |
> +  +===========+=========+==========+===================================+
> +  | 0         | 0       | 0        | Device is stopped.                |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | 0         | 0       | 1        | Device is running, default state. |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | 0         | 1       | 0        | Stop-and-copy state               |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | 0         | 1       | 1        | Pre-copy state                    |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | 1         | 0       | 0        | Resuming                          |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | 1         | 0       | 1        | Invalid state                     |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | 1         | 1       | 0        | Error state                       |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +  | 1         | 1       | 1        | Invalid state                     |
> +  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
> +
> +  Valid state transitions are shown in the following table:
> +
> +
> +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
> +  | |darr| From / To |rarr| | Stopped | Running | Stop-and-copy |
> Pre-copy | Resuming |
> +
> +=========================+=========+=========+===============+==========+==========+
> +  | Stopped                 |    \-   |    0    |       0       |    0
>  |     0    |
> +
> +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
> +  | Running                 |    1    |    \-   |       1       |    1
>  |     1    |
> +
> +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
> +  | Stop-and-copy           |    1    |    0    |       \-      |    0
>  |     0    |
> +
> +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
> +  | Pre-copy                |    0    |    0    |       1       |    \-
>   |     0    |
> +
> +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
> +  | Resuming                |    0    |    1    |       0       |    0
>  |     \-   |
> +
> +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
> +
> +  A device is migrated to the destination as follows:
> +
> +  * The source client transitions the device state from the running state
> to
> +    the pre-copy state. This transition is optional for the client but
> must be
> +    supported by the server. The souce server starts sending device state
> data
> +    to the source client through the migration region while the device is
> +    running.
> +
> +  * The source client transitions the device state from the running state
> or the
> +    pre-copy state to the stop-and-copy state. The source server stops the
> +    device, saves device state and sends it to the source client through
> the
> +    migration region.
> +
> +  The source client is responsible for sending the migration data to the
> +  destination client.
> +
> +  A device is resumed on the destination as follows:
> +
> +  * The destination client transitions the device state from the running
> state
> +    to the resuming state. The destination server uses the device state
> data
> +    received through the migration region to resume the device.
> +
> +  * The destination client provides saved device state to the destination
> +    server and then transitions the device to back to the running state.
> +
> +* *reserved* This field is reserved and any access to it must be ignored
> by the
> +  server.
> +
> +* *pending_bytes* Remaining bytes to be migrated by the server. This
> field is
> +  read only.
> +
> +* *data_offset* Offset in the migration region where the client must:
> +
> +  * read from, during the pre-copy or stop-and-copy state, or
> +
> +  * write to, during the resuming state.
> +
> +  This field is read only.
> +
> +* *data_size* Contains the size, in bytes, of the amount of data copied
> to:
> +
> +  * the source migration region by the source server during the pre-copy
> or
> +    stop-and copy state, or
> +
> +  * the destination migration region by the destination client during the
> +    resuming state.
> +
> +Device-specific data must be stored at any position after
> +`struct vfio_device_migration_info`. Note that the migration region can be
> +memory mappable, even partially. In practise, only the migration data
> portion
> +can be memory mapped.
> +
> +The client processes device state data during the pre-copy and the
> +stop-and-copy state in the following iterative manner:
> +
> +  1. The client reads `pending_bytes` to mark a new iteration. Repeated
> reads
> +     of this field is an idempotent operation. If there are no migration
> data
> +     to be consumed then the next step depends on the current device
> state:
> +
> +     * pre-copy: the client must try again.
> +
> +     * stop-and-copy: this procedure can end and the device can now start
> +       resuming on the destination.
> +
> +  2. The client reads `data_offset`; at thich point the server must make
> +     available a portion of migration data at this offset to be read by
> the
> +     client, which must happen *before* completing the read operation. The
> +     amount of data to be read must be stored in the `data_size` field,
> which
> +     the client reads next.
> +
> +  3. The client reads `data_size` to determine the amount of migration
> data
> +     available.
> +
> +  4. The client reads and processes the migration data.
> +
> +  5. Go to step 1.
> +
> +Note that the client can transition the device from the pre-copy state to
> the
> +stop-and-copy state at any time; `pending_bytes` does not need to become
> zero.
> +
> +The client initializes the device state on the destination by setting the
> +device state in the resuming state and writing the migration data to the
> +destination migration region at `data_offset` offset. The client can
> write the
> +source migration data in an iterative manner and the server must consume
> this
> +data before completing each write operation, updating the `data_offset`
> field.
> +The server must apply the source migration data on the device resume
> state. The
> +client must write data on the same order and transction size as read.
> +
> +If an error occurs then the server must fail the read or write operation.
> It is
> +an implementation detail of the client how to handle errors.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO
> +-----------------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 6                      |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 32                     |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| IRQ info     | VFIO IRQ info          |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for
> +information about device interrupt types. The VFIO IRQ info structure is
> +defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_irq_info``).
> +
> +VFIO IRQ info format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++-------+--------+---------------------------+
> +| Name  | Offset | Size                      |
> ++=======+========+===========================+
> +| argsz | 16     | 4                         |
> ++-------+--------+---------------------------+
> +| flags | 20     | 4                         |
> ++-------+--------+---------------------------+
> +|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
> +|       | | Bit | Definition               | |
> +|       | +=====+==========================+ |
> +|       | | 0   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_EVENTFD    | |
> +|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 1   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_MASKABLE   | |
> +|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 2   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_AUTOMASKED | |
> +|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 3   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_NORESIZE   | |
> +|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
> ++-------+--------+---------------------------+
> +| index | 24     | 4                         |
> ++-------+--------+---------------------------+
> +| count | 28     | 4                         |
> ++-------+--------+---------------------------+
> +
> +* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO IRQ info structure.
> +* *flags* defines IRQ attributes:
> +
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_EVENTFD* indicates the IRQ type can support server
> eventfd
> +    signalling.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_MASKABLE* indicates that the IRQ type supports the
> MASK and
> +    UNMASK actions in a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS message.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_AUTOMASKED* indicates the IRQ type masks itself after
> being
> +    triggered, and the client must send an UNMASK action to receive new
> +    interrupts.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_NORESIZE* indicates VFIO_USER_SET_IRQS operations setup
> +    interrupts as a set, and new sub-indexes cannot be enabled without
> disabling
> +    the entire type.
> +
> +* index is the index of IRQ type being queried, it is the only field that
> is
> +  required to be set in the command message.
> +* count describes the number of interrupts of the queried type.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS
> +-------------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 7                      |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 36 + any data          |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| IRQ set      | VFIO IRQ set           |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent by the client to the server to set actions
> for
> +device interrupt types. The VFIO IRQ set structure is defined in
> +``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_irq_set``).
> +
> +VFIO IRQ set format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| Name  | Offset | Size                         |
> ++=======+========+==============================+
> +| argsz | 16     | 4                            |
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| flags | 20     | 4                            |
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|       | | Bit | Definition                  | |
> +|       | +=====+=============================+ |
> +|       | | 0   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE      | |
> +|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 1   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL      | |
> +|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 2   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD   | |
> +|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 3   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_MASK    | |
> +|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 4   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_UNMASK  | |
> +|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 5   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_TRIGGER | |
> +|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| index | 24     | 4                            |
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| start | 28     | 4                            |
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| count | 32     | 4                            |
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +| data  | 36     | variable                     |
> ++-------+--------+------------------------------+
> +
> +* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO IRQ set structure, including any *data*
> field.
> +* *flags* defines the action performed on the interrupt range. The DATA
> flags
> +  describe the data field sent in the message; the ACTION flags describe
> the
> +  action to be performed. The flags are mutually exclusive for both sets.
> +
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE* indicates there is no data field in the
> command.
> +    The action is performed unconditionally.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL* indicates the data field is an array of
> boolean
> +    bytes. The action is performed if the corresponding boolean is true.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD* indicates an array of event file
> descriptors
> +    was sent in the message meta-data. These descriptors will be
> signalled when
> +    the action defined by the action flags occurs. In AF_UNIX sockets, the
> +    descriptors are sent as SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_MASK* indicates a masking event. It can be used
> with
> +    VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to mask an
> interrupt, or
> +    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event when the guest
> masks
> +    the interrupt.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_UNMASK* indicates an unmasking event. It can be
> used
> +    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to unmask an
> +    interrupt, or with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event
> when the
> +    guest unmasks the interrupt.
> +  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_TRIGGER* indicates a triggering event. It can be
> used
> +    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to trigger an
> +    interrupt, or with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event
> when the
> +    server triggers the interrupt.
> +
> +* *index* is the index of IRQ type being setup.
> +* *start* is the start of the sub-index being set.
> +* *count* describes the number of sub-indexes being set. As a special
> case, a
> +  count of 0 with data flags of VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE disables all
> interrupts
> +  of the index.
> +* *data* is an optional field included when the
> +  VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL flag is present. It contains an array of booleans
> +  that specify whether the action is to be performed on the corresponding
> +  index. It's used when the action is only performed on a subset of the
> range
> +  specified.
> +
> +Not all interrupt types support every combination of data and action
> flags.
> +The client must know the capabilities of the device and IRQ index before
> it
> +sends a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQ message.
> +
> +.. _Read and Write Operations:
> +
> +Read and Write Operations
> +-------------------------
> +
> +Not all I/O operations between the client and server can be done via
> direct
> +access of memory mapped with an mmap() call. In these cases, the client
> and
> +server use messages sent over the socket. It is expected that these
> operations
> +will have lower performance than direct access.
> +
> +The client can access server memory with VFIO_USER_REGION_READ and
> +VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE commands. These share a common data structure that
> +appears after the message header.
> +
> +REGION Read/Write Data
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------+--------+----------+
> +| Name   | Offset | Size     |
> ++========+========+==========+
> +| Offset | 16     | 8        |
> ++--------+--------+----------+
> +| Region | 24     | 4        |
> ++--------+--------+----------+
> +| Count  | 28     | 4        |
> ++--------+--------+----------+
> +| Data   | 32     | variable |
> ++--------+--------+----------+
> +
> +* *Offset* into the region being accessed.
> +* *Region* is the index of the region being accessed.
> +* *Count* is the size of the data to be transferred.
> +* *Data* is the data to be read or written.
> +
> +The server can access client memory with VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and
> +VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages. These also share a common data structure
> that
> +appears after the message header.
> +
> +DMA Read/Write Data
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++---------+--------+----------+
> +| Name    | Offset | Size     |
> ++=========+========+==========+
> +| Address | 16     | 8        |
> ++---------+--------+----------+
> +| Count   | 24     | 4        |
> ++---------+--------+----------+
> +| Data    | 28     | variable |
> ++---------+--------+----------+
> +
> +* *Address* is the area of client memory being accessed. This address
> must have
> +  been previously exported to the server with a VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP message.
> +* *Count* is the size of the data to be transferred.
> +* *Data* is the data to be read or written.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_REGION_READ
> +---------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 8                      |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 32 + data size         |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Read info    | REGION read/write data |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent from the client to the server to read from
> server
> +memory.  In the command messages, there is no data, and the count is the
> amount
> +of data to be read. The reply message must include the data read, and its
> count
> +field is the amount of data read.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE
> +----------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 9                      |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 32 + data size         |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Write info   | REGION read/write data |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent from the client to the server to write to
> server
> +memory.  The command message must contain the data to be written, and its
> count
> +field must contain the amount of write data. The count field in the reply
> +message must be zero.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DMA_READ
> +------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 10                     |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 28 + data size         |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| DMA info     | DMA read/write data    |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent from the server to the client to read from
> client
> +memory.  In the command message, there is no data, and the count must
> will be
> +the amount of data to be read. The reply message must include the data
> read,
> +and its count field must be the amount of data read.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE
> +-------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 11                     |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 28 + data size         |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| DMA info     | DMA read/write data    |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent from the server to the client to write to
> client
> +memory.  The command message must contain the data to be written, and its
> count
> +field must contain the amount of write data. The count field in the reply
> +message must be zero.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT
> +----------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++----------------+------------------------+
> +| Name           | Value                  |
> ++================+========================+
> +| Message ID     | <ID>                   |
> ++----------------+------------------------+
> +| Command        | 12                     |
> ++----------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size   | 20                     |
> ++----------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags          | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++----------------+------------------------+
> +| Error          | 0/errno                |
> ++----------------+------------------------+
> +| Interrupt info | <interrupt>            |
> ++----------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent from the server to the client to signal the
> device
> +has raised an interrupt.
> +
> +Interrupt info format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++-----------+--------+------+
> +| Name      | Offset | Size |
> ++===========+========+======+
> +| Sub-index | 16     | 4    |
> ++-----------+--------+------+
> +
> +* *Sub-index* is relative to the IRQ index, e.g., the vector number used
> in PCI
> +  MSI/X type interrupts.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET
> +----------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Name         | Value                  |
> ++==============+========================+
> +| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Command      | 13                     |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size | 16                     |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +| Error        | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command message is sent from the client to the server to reset the
> device.
> +
> +VFIO_USER_DIRTY_PAGES
> +---------------------
> +
> +Message format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------------------+------------------------+
> +| Name               | Value                  |
> ++====================+========================+
> +| Message ID         | <ID>                   |
> ++--------------------+------------------------+
> +| Command            | 14                     |
> ++--------------------+------------------------+
> +| Message size       | 16                     |
> ++--------------------+------------------------+
> +| Flags              | Reply bit set in reply |
> ++--------------------+------------------------+
> +| Error              | 0/errno                |
> ++--------------------+------------------------+
> +| VFIO Dirty bitmap  | <dirty bitmap>         |
> ++--------------------+------------------------+
> +
> +This command is analogous to VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES. It is sent by the
> client
> +to the server in order to control logging of dirty pages, usually during
> a live
> +migration. The VFIO dirty bitmap structure is defined in
> ``<linux/vfio.h>``
> +(``struct vfio_iommu_type1_dirty_bitmap``).
> +
> +VFIO Dirty Bitmap Format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
> +| Name  | Offset | Size                                    |
> ++=======+========+=========================================+
> +| argsz | 0      | 4                                       |
> ++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
> +| flags | 4      | 4                                       |
> ++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
> +|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
> +|       | | Bit | Definition                             | |
> +|       | +=====+========================================+ |
> +|       | | 0   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_START      | |
> +|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 1   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP       | |
> +|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
> +|       | | 2   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_GET_BITMAP | |
> +|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
> ++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
> +| data  | 8      | 4                                       |
> ++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
> +
> +* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO dirty bitmap info structure.
> +
> +* *flags* defines the action to be performed by the server:
> +
> +  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_START* instructs the server to start
> logging
> +    pages it dirties. Logging continues until explicitly disabled by
> +    VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP.
> +
> +  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP* instructs the server to stop
> logging
> +    dirty pages.
> +
> +  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_GET_BITMAP* requests from the server to
> return
> +    the dirty bitmap for a specific IOVA range. The IOVA range is
> specified by
> +    "VFIO dirty bitmap get" structure, which must immediatelly follow the
> +    "VFIO dirty bitmap" structure, explained next. This operation is only
> valid
> +    if logging of dirty pages has been previously started. The server must
> +    respond the same way it does for VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP (the dirty pages
> +    bitmap must follow the response header).
> +
> +  These flags are mutually exclusive with each other.
> +
> +* *data* This field is unused in vfio-user.
> +
> +VFIO Dirty Bitmap Get Format
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +| Name   | Offset | Size |
> ++========+========+======+
> +| iova   | 0      | 8    |
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +| size   | 8      | 8    |
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +| bitmap | 16     | 24   |
> ++--------+--------+------+
> +
> +* *iova* is the IOVA offset
> +
> +* *size* is the size of the IOVA region
> +
> +* *bitmap* is the VFIO bitmap (``struct vfio_bitmap``), with the same
> semantics
> +  as VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP.
> +
> +
> +Appendices
> +==========
> +
> +Unused VFIO ioctl() commands
> +----------------------------
> +
> +The following VFIO commands do not have an equivalent vfio-user command:
> +
> +* VFIO_GET_API_VERSION
> +* VFIO_CHECK_EXTENSION
> +* VFIO_SET_IOMMU
> +* VFIO_GROUP_GET_STATUS
> +* VFIO_GROUP_SET_CONTAINER
> +* VFIO_GROUP_UNSET_CONTAINER
> +* VFIO_GROUP_GET_DEVICE_FD
> +* VFIO_IOMMU_GET_INFO
> +
> +However, once support for live migration for VFIO devices is finalized
> some
> +of the above commands may have to be handled by the client in their
> +corresponding vfio-user form. This will be addressed in a future protocol
> +version.
> +
> +VFIO groups and containers
> +^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
> +
> +The current VFIO implementation includes group and container idioms that
> +describe how a device relates to the host IOMMU. In the vfio-user
> +implementation, the IOMMU is implemented in SW by the client, and is not
> +visible to the server. The simplest idea would be that the client put each
> +device into its own group and container.
> +
> +Backend Program Conventions
> +---------------------------
> +
> +vfio-user backend program conventions are based on the vhost-user ones.
> +
> +* The backend program must not daemonize itself.
> +* No assumptions must be made as to what access the backend program has
> on the
> +  system.
> +* File descriptors 0, 1 and 2 must exist, must have regular
> +  stdin/stdout/stderr semantics, and can be redirected.
> +* The backend program must honor the SIGTERM signal.
> +* The backend program must accept the following commands line options:
> +
> +  * ``--socket-path=PATH``: path to UNIX domain socket,
> +  * ``--fd=FDNUM``: file descriptor for UNIX domain socket, incompatible
> with
> +    ``--socket-path``
> +* The backend program must be accompanied with a JSON file stored under
> +  ``/usr/share/vfio-user``.
> --
> 2.12.2
>

Is there a schema for it? (similar to docs/interop/vhost-user.json). If
it's left for later, then a TODO note should be left.


-- 
Marc-André Lureau

RE: [PATCH v7] introduce vfio-user protocol specification

Posted by Thanos Makatos 9 months, 3 weeks ago
From: Marc-André Lureau <marcandre.lureau@gmail.com>
Sent: 01 December 2020 08:32
To: Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>
Cc: QEMU <qemu-devel@nongnu.org>; Walker, Benjamin <benjamin.walker@intel.com>; John G Johnson <john.g.johnson@oracle.com>; Swapnil Ingle <swapnil.ingle@nutanix.com>; Michael S . Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com>; Jason Wang <jasowang@redhat.com>; John Levon <levon@movementarian.org>; Kirti Wankhede <kwankhede@nvidia.com>; Gerd Hoffmann <kraxel@redhat.com>; Tina Zhang <tina.zhang@intel.com>; Jagannathan Raman <jag.raman@oracle.com>; Harris, James R <james.r.harris@intel.com>; Elena Ufimtseva <elena.ufimtseva@oracle.com>; Kanth Ghatraju <Kanth.Ghatraju@oracle.com>; Felipe Franciosi <felipe@nutanix.com>; Christophe de Dinechin <cdupontd@redhat.com>; Yan Zhao <yan.y.zhao@intel.com>; Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com>; yuvalkashtan@gmail.com; Dr. David Alan Gilbert <dgilbert@redhat.com>; ismael@linux.com; Stefan Hajnoczi <stefanha@redhat.com>; Liu, Changpeng <changpeng.liu@intel.com>; tomassetti.andrea@gmail.com; Cornelia Huck <cohuck@redhat.com>; Alex Williamson <alex.williamson@redhat.com>; Raphael Norwitz <raphael.norwitz@nutanix.com>; xiuchun.lu@intel.com; Paolo Bonzini <pbonzini@redhat.com>
Subject: Re: [PATCH v7] introduce vfio-user protocol specification

Hi

On Mon, Nov 30, 2020 at 8:14 PM Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com<mailto:thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>> wrote:
This patch introduces the vfio-user protocol specification (formerly
known as VFIO-over-socket), which is designed to allow devices to be
emulated outside QEMU, in a separate process. vfio-user reuses the
existing VFIO defines, structs and concepts.

It has been earlier discussed as an RFC in:
"RFC: use VFIO over a UNIX domain socket to implement device offloading"

Signed-off-by: John G Johnson <john.g.johnson@oracle.com<mailto:john.g.johnson@oracle.com>>
Signed-off-by: Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com<mailto:thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>>

I am taking a superficial look, as I don't have much experience from implementing it (recently).

---

Changed since v1:
  * fix coding style issues
  * update MAINTAINERS for VFIO-over-socket
  * add vfio-over-socket to ToC

Changed since v2:
  * fix whitespace

Changed since v3:
  * rename protocol to vfio-user
  * add table of contents
  * fix Unicode problems
  * fix typos and various reStructuredText issues
  * various stylistic improvements
  * add backend program conventions
  * rewrite part of intro, drop QEMU-specific stuff
  * drop QEMU-specific paragraph about implementation
  * explain that passing of FDs isn't necessary
  * minor improvements in the VFIO section
  * various text substitutions for the sake of consistency
  * drop paragraph about client and server, already explained in
  * intro
  * drop device ID
  * drop type from version
  * elaborate on request concurrency
  * convert some inessential paragraphs into notes
  * explain why some existing VFIO defines cannot be reused
  * explain how to make changes to the protocol
  * improve text of DMA map
  * reword comment about existing VFIO commands
  * add reference to Version section
  * reset device on disconnection
  * reword live migration section
  * replace sys/vfio.h with linux/vfio.h
  * drop reference to iovec
  * use argz the same way it is used in VFIO
  * add type field in header for clarity

Changed since v4:
  * introduce support for live migration as defined in
  * include/uapi/linux/vfio.h
  * introduce 'max_fds' and 'migration' capabilities:
  * remove 'index' from VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO
  * fix minor typos and reworded some text for clarity

Changed since v5:
  * fix minor typos
  * separate VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP and VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP
  * clarify meaning of VFIO bitmap size field
  * move version major/minor outside JSON
  * client proposes version first

What was the rationale? (See below)

It felt more natural this way when we implemented it.


  * make Errno optional in message header
  * clarification about message ID uniqueness
  * clarify that server->client request can appear in between
    client->server request/reply

Changed since v6:
  * put JSON strings in double quotes
  * clarify reply behavior on error
  * introduce max message size capability
  * clarify semantics when failing to map multiple DMA regions in a
    single command

You can focus on v6 to v7 changes by cloning my fork
(https://github.com/tmakatos/qemu [github.com]<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__github.com_tmakatos_qemu&d=DwMFaQ&c=s883GpUCOChKOHiocYtGcg&r=XTpYsh5Ps2zJvtw6ogtti46atk736SI4vgsJiUKIyDE&m=WX4ngSvng4fzwc4cr3ySDdXUqG4AlaMyd1yzn3L1vnE&s=fnD1k-0K3F1saKYRQP6UgjpclSUFB7g-tyCYyIXMg_M&e=>) and doing:

        git diff refs/tags/vfio-user/v6 refs/heads/vfio-user/v7
---
 MAINTAINERS              |    6 +
 docs/devel/index.rst     |    1 +
 docs/devel/vfio-user.rst | 1662 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 1669 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 docs/devel/vfio-user.rst

diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS
index 68bc160f41..6a4c662976 100644
--- a/MAINTAINERS
+++ b/MAINTAINERS
@@ -1766,6 +1766,12 @@ F: hw/vfio/ap.c
 F: docs/system/s390x/vfio-ap.rst
 L: qemu-s390x@nongnu.org<mailto:qemu-s390x@nongnu.org>

+vfio-user
+M: John G Johnson <john.g.johnson@oracle.com<mailto:john.g.johnson@oracle.com>>
+M: Thanos Makatos <thanos.makatos@nutanix.com<mailto:thanos.makatos@nutanix.com>>
+S: Supported
+F: docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
+
 vhost
 M: Michael S. Tsirkin <mst@redhat.com<mailto:mst@redhat.com>>
 S: Supported
diff --git a/docs/devel/index.rst b/docs/devel/index.rst
index f10ed77e4c..2e2cba28c6 100644
--- a/docs/devel/index.rst
+++ b/docs/devel/index.rst
@@ -35,3 +35,4 @@ Contents:
    clocks
    qom
    block-coroutine-wrapper
+   vfio-user
diff --git a/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst b/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..d15a228a1a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/docs/devel/vfio-user.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,1662 @@
+.. include:: <isonum.txt>
+
+********************************
+vfio-user Protocol Specification
+********************************
+
+------------
+Version_ 0.1
+------------
+
+.. contents:: Table of Contents
+
+Introduction
+============
+vfio-user is a protocol that allows a device to be emulated in a separate
+process outside of a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM). vfio-user devices consist
+of a generic VFIO device type, living inside the VMM, which we call the client,
+and the core device implementation, living outside the VMM, which we call the
+server.
+
+The `Linux VFIO ioctl interface <https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/driver-api/vfio.html [kernel.org]<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.kernel.org_doc_html_latest_driver-2Dapi_vfio.html&d=DwMFaQ&c=s883GpUCOChKOHiocYtGcg&r=XTpYsh5Ps2zJvtw6ogtti46atk736SI4vgsJiUKIyDE&m=WX4ngSvng4fzwc4cr3ySDdXUqG4AlaMyd1yzn3L1vnE&s=-nTMqOxEHW4m-FlY7FeyzaZloRNMkczghK7QJa3S3eQ&e=>>`_
+been chosen as the base for this protocol for the following reasons:
+
+1) It is a mature and stable API, backed by an extensively used framework.
+2) The existing VFIO client implementation in QEMU (qemu/hw/vfio/) can be
+   largely reused.
+
+.. Note::
+   In a proof of concept implementation it has been demonstrated that using VFIO
+   over a UNIX domain socket is a viable option. vfio-user is designed with
+   QEMU in mind, however it could be used by other client applications. The
+   vfio-user protocol does not require that QEMU's VFIO client  implementation
+   is used in QEMU.
+
+None of the VFIO kernel modules are required for supporting the protocol,
+neither in the client nor the server, only the source header files are used.
+
+The main idea is to allow a virtual device to function in a separate process in
+the same host over a UNIX domain socket. A UNIX domain socket (AF_UNIX) is
+chosen because file descriptors can be trivially sent over it, which in turn
+allows:
+
+* Sharing of client memory for DMA with the server.
+* Sharing of server memory with the client for fast MMIO.
+* Efficient sharing of eventfd's for triggering interrupts.
+
+Other socket types could be used which allow the server to run in a separate
+guest in the same host (AF_VSOCK) or remotely (AF_INET). Theoretically the
+underlying transport does not necessarily have to be a socket, however we do
+not examine such alternatives. In this protocol version we focus on using a
+UNIX domain socket and introduce basic support for the other two types of
+sockets without considering performance implications.
+
+While passing of file descriptors is desirable for performance reasons, it is
+not necessary neither for the client nor for the server to support it in order
+to implement the protocol. There is always an in-band, message-passing fall
+back mechanism.
+
+VFIO
+====
+VFIO is a framework that allows a physical device to be securely passed through
+to a user space process; the device-specific kernel driver does not drive the
+device at all.  Typically, the user space process is a VMM and the device is
+passed through to it in order to achieve high performance. VFIO provides an API
+and the required functionality in the kernel. QEMU has adopted VFIO to allow a
+guest to directly access physical devices, instead of emulating them in
+software.
+
+vfio-user reuses the core VFIO concepts defined in its API, but implements them
+as messages to be sent over a socket. It does not change the kernel-based VFIO
+in any way, in fact none of the VFIO kernel modules need to be loaded to use
+vfio-user. It is also possible for the client to concurrently use the current
+kernel-based VFIO for one device, and vfio-user for another device.
+
+VFIO Device Model
+-----------------
+A device under VFIO presents a standard interface to the user process. Many of
+the VFIO operations in the existing interface use the ioctl() system call, and
+references to the existing interface are called the ioctl() implementation in
+this document.
+
+The following sections describe the set of messages that implement the VFIO
+interface over a socket. In many cases, the messages are direct translations of
+data structures used in the ioctl() implementation. Messages derived from
+ioctl()s will have a name derived from the ioctl() command name.  E.g., the
+VFIO_GET_INFO ioctl() command becomes a VFIO_USER_GET_INFO message.  The
+purpose of this reuse is to share as much code as feasible with the ioctl()
+implementation.
+
+Connection Initiation
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+After the client connects to the server, the initial server message is
+VFIO_USER_VERSION to propose a protocol version and set of capabilities to
+apply to the session. The client replies with a compatible version and set of
+capabilities it supports, or closes the connection if it cannot support the
+advertised version.

Ok, so the server announces first. (it makes sense to me, as the client is more adjustable than the server - and it allows to discover server caps)

The protocol is wrong, we missed updating the text when switching from the server to the client sending the version first.
So, it’s the client that announces the version first, we’ll fix the text.


+
+DMA Memory Configuration
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP and VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP messages to inform
+the server of the valid DMA ranges that the server can access on behalf
+of a device. DMA memory may be accessed by the server via VFIO_USER_DMA_READ
+and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages over the socket.
+
+An optimization for server access to client memory is for the client to provide
+file descriptors the server can mmap() to directly access client memory. Note
+that mmap() privileges cannot be revoked by the client, therefore file
+descriptors should only be exported in environments where the client trusts the
+server not to corrupt guest memory.
+
+Device Information
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO message to query the server for
+information about the device. This information includes:
+
+* The device type and whether it supports reset (``VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_``),
+* the number of device regions, and
+* the device presents to the client the number of interrupt types the device
+  supports.
+
+Region Information
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO messages to query the server
+for information about the device's memory regions. This information describes:
+
+* Read and write permissions, whether it can be memory mapped, and whether it
+  supports additional capabilities (``VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_``).
+* Region index, size, and offset.
+
+When a region can be mapped by the client, the server provides a file
+descriptor which the client can mmap(). The server is responsible for polling
+for client updates to memory mapped regions.
+
+Region Capabilities
+"""""""""""""""""""
+Some regions have additional capabilities that cannot be described adequately
+by the region info data structure. These capabilities are returned in the
+region info reply in a list similar to PCI capabilities in a PCI device's
+configuration space.
+
+Sparse Regions
+""""""""""""""
+A region can be memory-mappable in whole or in part. When only a subset of a
+region can be mapped by the client, a VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_SPARSE_MMAP
+capability is included in the region info reply. This capability describes
+which portions can be mapped by the client.
+
+.. Note::
+   For example, in a virtual NVMe controller, sparse regions can be used so
+   that accesses to the NVMe registers (found in the beginning of BAR0) are
+   trapped (an infrequent event), while allowing direct access to the doorbells
+   (an extremely frequent event as every I/O submission requires a write to
+   BAR0), found right after the NVMe registers in BAR0.
+
+Device-Specific Regions
+"""""""""""""""""""""""
+
+A device can define regions additional to the standard ones (e.g. PCI indexes
+0-8). This is achieved by including a VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_TYPE capability
+in the region info reply of a device-specific region. Such regions are reflected
+in ``struct vfio_device_info.num_regions``. Thus, for PCI devices this value can
+be equal to, or higher than, VFIO_PCI_NUM_REGIONS.
+
+Interrupts
+^^^^^^^^^^
+The client uses VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO messages to query the server for
+the device's interrupt types. The interrupt types are specific to the bus the
+device is attached to, and the client is expected to know the capabilities of
+each interrupt type. The server can signal an interrupt either with
+VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT messages over the socket, or can directly inject
+interrupts into the guest via an event file descriptor. The client configures
+how the server signals an interrupt with VFIO_USER_SET_IRQS messages.
+
+Device Read and Write
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+When the guest executes load or store operations to device memory, the client
+forwards these operations to the server with VFIO_USER_REGION_READ or
+VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE messages. The server will reply with data from the
+device on read operations or an acknowledgement on write operations.
+
+DMA
+^^^
+When a device performs DMA accesses to guest memory, the server will forward
+them to the client with VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages.
+These messages can only be used to access guest memory the client has
+configured into the server.
+
+Protocol Specification
+======================
+To distinguish from the base VFIO symbols, all vfio-user symbols are prefixed
+with vfio_user or VFIO_USER. In revision 0.1, all data is in the little-endian
+format, although this may be relaxed in future revision in cases where the
+client and server are both big-endian. The messages are formatted for seamless
+reuse of the native VFIO structs.
+
+Socket
+------
+
+A server can serve:
+
+1) one or more clients, and/or
+2) one or more virtual devices, belonging to one or more clients.
+
+The current protocol specification requires a dedicated socket per
+client/server connection. It is a server-side implementation detail whether a
+single server handles multiple virtual devices from the same or multiple
+clients. The location of the socket is implementation-specific. Multiplexing
+clients, devices, and servers over the same socket is not supported in this
+version of the protocol.
+
+Authentication
+--------------
+For AF_UNIX, we rely on OS mandatory access controls on the socket files,
+therefore it is up to the management layer to set up the socket as required.
+Socket types than span guests or hosts will require a proper authentication
+mechanism. Defining that mechanism is deferred to a future version of the
+protocol.
+
+Command Concurrency
+-------------------
+A client may pipeline multiple commands without waiting for previous command
+replies.  The server will process commands in the order they are received.  A
+consequence of this is if a client issues a command with the *No_reply* bit,
+then subseqently issues a command without *No_reply*, the older command will
+have been processed before the reply to the younger command is sent by the
+server.  The client must be aware of the device's capability to process
+concurrent commands if pipelining is used.  For example, pipelining allows
+multiple client threads to concurently access device memory; the client must
+ensure these acceses obey device semantics.
+
+An example is a frame buffer device, where the device may allow concurrent
+access to different areas of video memory, but may have indeterminate behavior
+if concurrent acceses are performed to command or status registers.
+
+Note that unrelated messages sent from the sevrer to the client can appear in
+between a client to server request/reply and vice versa.
+
+Socket Disconnection Behavior
+-----------------------------
+The server and the client can disconnect from each other, either intentionally
+or unexpectedly. Both the client and the server need to know how to handle such
+events.
+
+Server Disconnection
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+A server disconnecting from the client may indicate that:
+
+1) A virtual device has been restarted, either intentionally (e.g. because of a
+   device update) or unintentionally (e.g. because of a crash).
+2) A virtual device has been shut down with no intention to be restarted.
+
+It is impossible for the client to know whether or not a failure is
+intermittent or innocuous and should be retried, therefore the client should
+reset the VFIO device when it detects the socket has been disconnected.
+Error recovery will be driven by the guest's device error handling
+behavior.
+
+Client Disconnection
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The client disconnecting from the server primarily means that the client
+has exited. Currently, this means that the guest is shut down so the device is
+no longer needed therefore the server can automatically exit. However, there
+can be cases where a client disconnection should not result in a server exit:
+
+1) A single server serving multiple clients.
+2) A multi-process QEMU upgrading itself step by step, which is not yet
+   implemented.
+
+Therefore in order for the protocol to be forward compatible the server should
+take no action when the client disconnects. If anything happens to the client
+the control stack will know about it and can clean up resources
+accordingly.
+
+Request Retry and Response Timeout
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+A failed command is a command that has been successfully sent and has been
+responded to with an error code. Failure to send the command in the first place
+(e.g. because the socket is disconnected) is a different type of error examined
+earlier in the disconnect section.
+
+.. Note::
+   QEMU's VFIO retries certain operations if they fail. While this makes sense
+   for real HW, we don't know for sure whether it makes sense for virtual
+   devices.
+
+Defining a retry and timeout scheme is deferred to a future version of the
+protocol.
+
+.. _Commands:
+
+Commands
+--------
+The following table lists the VFIO message command IDs, and whether the
+message command is sent from the client or the server.
+
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| Name                             | Command | Request Direction |
++==================================+=========+===================+
+| VFIO_USER_VERSION                | 1       | server -> client  |

Ok

Will fix as “client -> server”.


++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP                | 2       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP              | 3       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO        | 4       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO | 5       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO    | 6       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS        | 7       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_REGION_READ            | 8       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE           | 9       | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_READ               | 10      | server -> client  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE              | 11      | server -> client  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT           | 12      | server -> client  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET           | 13      | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+| VFIO_USER_DIRTY_PAGES            | 14      | client -> server  |
++----------------------------------+---------+-------------------+
+
+
+.. Note:: Some VFIO defines cannot be reused since their values are
+   architecture-specific (e.g. VFIO_IOMMU_MAP_DMA).
+
+Header
+------
+All messages, both command messages and reply messages, are preceded by a
+header that contains basic information about the message. The header is
+followed by message-specific data described in the sections below.
+
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Name           | Offset | Size        |
++================+========+=============+
+| Message ID     | 0      | 2           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Command        | 2      | 2           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Message size   | 4      | 4           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Flags          | 8      | 4           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
+|                | | Bit | Definition | |
+|                | +=====+============+ |
+|                | | 0-3 | Type       | |
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
+|                | | 4   | No_reply   | |
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
+|                | | 5   | Error      | |
+|                | +-----+------------+ |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| Error          | 12     | 4           |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+| <message data> | 16     | variable    |
++----------------+--------+-------------+
+
+* *Message ID* identifies the message, and is echoed in the command's reply
+  message. Message IDs belong entirely to the sender, can be re-used (even
+  concurrently) and the receiver must not make any assumptions about their
+  uniqueness.
+* *Command* specifies the command to be executed, listed in Commands_.
+* *Message size* contains the size of the entire message, including the header.
+* *Flags* contains attributes of the message:
+
+  * The *Type* bits indicate the message type.
+
+    *  *Command* (value 0x0) indicates a command message.
+    *  *Reply* (value 0x1) indicates a reply message acknowledging a previous
+       command with the same message ID.
+  * *No_reply* in a command message indicates that no reply is needed for this command.
+    This is commonly used when multiple commands are sent, and only the last needs
+    acknowledgement.
+  * *Error* in a reply message indicates the command being acknowledged had
+    an error. In this case, the *Error* field will be valid.
+
+* *Error* in a reply message is an optional UNIX errno value. It may be zero
+  even if the Error bit is set in Flags. It is reserved in a command message.
+
+Each command message in Commands_ must be replied to with a reply message, unless the
+message sets the *No_Reply* bit.  The reply consists of the header with the *Reply*
+bit set, plus any additional data.
+
+If an error occurs, the reply message must only include the reply header.
+
+VFIO_USER_VERSION
+-----------------
+
+This is the initial message sent by the client after the socket connection is
+established:


Contradictory with the above.

Indeed, this will be correct after we update the rest of the text.

+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                                     |
++==============+===========================================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                                      |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Command      | 1                                         |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 + version header + version data length |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply                    |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                                   |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+| Version      | version header                            |
++--------------+-------------------------------------------+
+
+Version Header Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
+| Name          | Offset | Size                                           |
++===============+========+================================================+
+| version major | 16     | 2                                              |
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
+| version minor | 18     | 2                                              |
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+
+| version data  | 22     | variable (including terminating NUL            |
+|               |        | character). Optional.                          |
++---------------+--------+------------------------------------------------+


Annoying that this version won't be easily human-readable. (you can't simply netcat to a vfio server and get the version)
iirc, earlier versions of the proposal just sent a json message straight without a header.

This initial text-phase is imho more interesting, as the binary protocol requirements are mostly for machine-convenience and performance reasons when the device is actually running.


It’s simpler to parse the JSON string knowing the exact version.

+
+Version Data Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The version data is an optional JSON byte array with the following format:
+
++--------------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
+| Name               | Type             | Description                       |
++====================+==================+===================================+
+| ``"capabilities"`` | collection of    | Contains common capabilities that |
+|                    | name/value pairs | the sender supports. Optional.    |
++--------------------+------------------+-----------------------------------+
+
+Capabilities:
+
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+| Name               | Type             | Description                         |
++====================+==================+=====================================+
+| ``"max_fds"``      | number           | Maximum number of file descriptors  |
+|                    |                  | the can be received by the sender.  |
+|                    |                  | Optional. If not specified then the |
+|                    |                  | receiver must assume                |
+|                    |                  | ``"max_fds"=1``.                    |
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+| ``"max_msg_size"`` | number           | Maximum message size in bytes that  |
+|                    |                  | the receiver can handle, including  |
+|                    |                  | the header. Optional. If not        |
+|                    |                  | specified then the receiver must    |
+|                    |                  | assume ``"max_msg_size"=4096``.     |
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+| ``"migration"``    | collection of    | Migration capability parameters. If |
+|                    | name/value pairs | missing then migration is not       |
+|                    |                  | supported by the sender.            |
++--------------------+------------------+-------------------------------------+
+
+The migration capability contains the following name/value pairs:
+
++--------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------+
+| Name         | Type   | Description                                   |
++==============+========+===============================================+
+| ``"pgsize"`` | number | Page size of dirty pages bitmap. The smallest |
+|              |        | between the client and the server is used.    |
++--------------+--------+-----------------------------------------------+
+
+
+.. _Version:
+
+Versioning and Feature Support
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Upon accepting a connection, the client must send a VFIO_USER_VERSION message
+proposing a protocol version and a set of capabilities. The server compares
+these with the versions and capabilities it supports and sends a
+VFIO_USER_VERSION reply according to the following rules.

I don't think the server will be as adaptable as the client. Again, it feels backward to me.

+
+* The major version in the reply must be the same as proposed. If the client
+  does not support the proposed major, it closes the connection.
+* The minor version in the reply must be equal to or less than the minor
+  version proposed.
+* The capability list must be a subset of those proposed. If the server
+  requires a capability the client did not include, it closes the connection.
+
+The protocol major version will only change when incompatible protocol changes
+are made, such as changing the message format. The minor version may change
+when compatible changes are made, such as adding new messages or capabilities,
+Both the client and server must support all minor versions less than the
+maximum minor version it supports. E.g., an implementation that supports
+version 1.3 must also support 1.0 through 1.2.
+
+When making a change to this specification, the protocol version number must
+be included in the form "added in version X.Y"
+
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP
+-----------------
+
+Message Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 2                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 + table size        |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Table        | array of table entries |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to inform it of the
+memory regions the server can access. It must be sent before the server can
+perform any DMA to the client. It is normally sent directly after the version
+handshake is completed, but may also occur when memory is added to the client,
+or if the client uses a vIOMMU. If the client does not expect the server to
+perform DMA then it does not need to send to the server VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP
+commands. If the server does not need to perform DMA then it can ignore such
+commands but it must still reply to them. The table is an array of the
+following structure:
+
+Table entry format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Name        | Offset | Size        |
++=============+========+=============+
+| Address     | 0      | 8           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Size        | 8      | 8           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Offset      | 16     | 8           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Protections | 24     | 4           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+| Flags       | 28     | 4           |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+|             | +-----+------------+ |
+|             | | Bit | Definition | |
+|             | +=====+============+ |
+|             | | 0   | Mappable   | |
+|             | +-----+------------+ |
++-------------+--------+-------------+
+
+* *Address* is the base DMA address of the region.
+* *Size* is the size of the region.
+* *Offset* is the file offset of the region with respect to the associated file
+  descriptor.
+* *Protections* are the region's protection attributes as encoded in
+  ``<sys/mman.h>``.
+* *Flags* contains the following region attributes:
+
+  * *Mappable* indicates that the region can be mapped via the mmap() system
+    call using the file descriptor provided in the message meta-data.
+
+This structure is 32 bytes in size, so the message size is:
+16 + (# of table entries * 32).
+
+If a DMA region being added can be directly mapped by the server, an array of
+file descriptors must be sent as part of the message meta-data. Each mappable
+region entry must have a corresponding file descriptor. On AF_UNIX sockets, the
+file descriptors must be passed as SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data. Otherwise,
+if a DMA region cannot be directly mapped by the server, it can be accessed by
+the server using VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages, explained
+in `Read and Write Operations`_. A command to map over an existing region must
+be failed by the server with ``EEXIST`` set in error field in the reply.
+
+Adding multiple DMA regions can partially fail. The response does not indicate
+which regions were added and which were not, therefore it is a client
+implementation detail how to recover from the failure.
+
+.. Note::
+   The server can optionally remove succesfully added DMA regions making this
+   operation atomic.
+   The client can recover by attempting to unmap one by one all the DMA regions
+   in the VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP command, ignoring failures for regions that do not
+   exist.
+
+
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP
+-------------------
+
+Message Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 3                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 + table size        |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Table        | array of table entries |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to inform it that a
+DMA region, previously made available via a VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP command message,
+is no longer available for DMA. It typically occurs when memory is subtracted
+from the client or if the client uses a vIOMMU. If the client does not expect
+the server to perform DMA then it does not need to send to the server
+VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP commands. If the server does not need to perform DMA then
+it can ignore such commands but it must still reply to them. The table is an
+array of the following structure:
+
+Table entry format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Name         | Offset | Size                                  |
++==============+========+=======================================+
+| Address      | 0      | 8                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Size         | 8      | 8                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Offset       | 16     | 8                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Protections  | 24     | 4                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| Flags        | 28     | 4                                     |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+|              | +-----+--------------------------------------+ |
+|              | | Bit | Definition                           | |
+|              | +=====+======================================+ |
+|              | | 0   | VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP | |
+|              | +-----+--------------------------------------+ |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+| VFIO Bitmaps | 32     | variable                              |
++--------------+--------+---------------------------------------+
+
+* *Address* is the base DMA address of the region.
+* *Size* is the size of the region.
+* *Offset* is the file offset of the region with respect to the associated file
+  descriptor.
+* *Protections* are the region's protection attributes as encoded in
+  ``<sys/mman.h>``.
+* *Flags* contains the following region attributes:
+
+  * *VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP* indicates that a dirty page bitmap
+    must be populated before unmapping the DMA region. The client must provide
+    a ``struct vfio_bitmap`` in the VFIO bitmaps field for each region, with
+    the ``vfio_bitmap.pgsize`` and ``vfio_bitmap.size`` fields initialized.
+
+* *VFIO Bitmaps* contains one ``struct vfio_bitmap`` per region if
+  ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is set in Flags.
+
+VFIO bitmap format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------+--------+------+
+| Name   | Offset | Size |
++========+========+======+
+| pgsize | 0      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| size   | 8      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| data   | 16     | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+
+* *pgsize* is the page size for the bitmap, in bytes.
+* *size* is the size for the bitmap, in bytes, excluding the VFIO bitmap header.
+* *data* This field is unused in vfio-user.
+
+The VFIO bitmap structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_bitmap``).
+
+If ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is not set in Flags then the size
+of the message is: 16 + (# of table entries * 32).
+If ``VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP`` is set in Flags then the size of
+the message is: 16 + (# of table entries * 56).
+
+Upon receiving a VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP command, if the file descriptor is mapped
+then the server must release all references to that DMA region before replying,
+which includes potentially in flight DMA transactions. Removing a portion of a
+DMA region is possible. If the VFIO_DMA_UNMAP_FLAG_GET_DIRTY_BITMAP bit is set
+in the request, the server must append to the header the ``struct vfio_bitmap``
+received in the command followed by the bitmap, for each region. Thus, the
+message size the client should expect is the size of the header plus the size
+of ``struct vfio_bitmap`` plus ``vfio_bitmap.size`` bytes for each region. Each
+bit in the bitmap represents one page of size ``vfio_bitmap.pgsize``.
+
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_INFO
+-------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                      |
++==============+============================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                       |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Command      | 4                          |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Message size | 16 in command, 32 in reply |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply     |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                    |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+| Device info  | VFIO device info           |
++--------------+----------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for basic
+information about the device. Only the message header is needed in the command
+message.  The VFIO device info structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_device_info``).
+
+VFIO device info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| Name        | Offset | Size                     |
++=============+========+==========================+
+| argsz       | 16     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| flags       | 20     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
+|             | | Bit | Definition              | |
+|             | +=====+=========================+ |
+|             | | 0   | VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_RESET | |
+|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
+|             | | 1   | VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_PCI   | |
+|             | +-----+-------------------------+ |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| num_regions | 24     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+| num_irqs    | 28     | 4                        |
++-------------+--------+--------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO device info structure.
+* *flags* contains the following device attributes.
+
+  * VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_RESET indicates that the device supports the
+    VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET message.
+  * VFIO_DEVICE_FLAGS_PCI indicates that the device is a PCI device.
+
+* *num_regions* is the number of memory regions that the device exposes.
+* *num_irqs* is the number of distinct interrupt types that the device supports.
+
+This version of the protocol only supports PCI devices. Additional devices may
+be supported in future versions.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO
+--------------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 5                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 48 + any caps          |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Region info  | VFIO region info       |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for
+information about device memory regions. The VFIO region info structure is
+defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_region_info``). Since the client
+does not know the size of the capabilities, the size of the reply it should
+expect is 48 plus any capabilities whose size is indicated in the size field of
+the reply header.
+
+VFIO region info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| Name       | Offset | Size                         |
++============+========+==============================+
+| argsz      | 16     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| flags      | 20     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | Bit | Definition                  | |
+|            | +=====+=============================+ |
+|            | | 0   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_READ  | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | 1   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_WRITE | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | 2   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_MMAP  | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|            | | 3   | VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_CAPS  | |
+|            | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| index      | 24     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| cap_offset | 28     | 4                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| size       | 32     | 8                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+| offset     | 40     | 8                            |
++------------+--------+------------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO region info structure plus the
+  size of any region capabilities returned.
+* *flags* are attributes of the region:
+
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_READ* allows client read access to the region.
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_WRITE* allows client write access to the region.
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_MMAP* specifies the client can mmap() the region.
+    When this flag is set, the reply will include a file descriptor in its
+    meta-data. On AF_UNIX sockets, the file descriptors will be passed as
+    SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data.
+  * *VFIO_REGION_INFO_FLAG_CAPS* indicates additional capabilities found in the
+    reply.
+
+* *index* is the index of memory region being queried, it is the only field
+  that is required to be set in the command message.
+* *cap_offset* describes where additional region capabilities can be found.
+  cap_offset is relative to the beginning of the VFIO region info structure.
+  The data structure it points is a VFIO cap header defined in
+  ``<linux/vfio.h>``.
+* *size* is the size of the region.
+* *offset* is the offset given to the mmap() system call for regions with the
+  MMAP attribute. It is also used as the base offset when mapping a VFIO
+  sparse mmap area, described below.
+
+VFIO Region capabilities
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+The VFIO region information can also include a capabilities list. This list is
+similar to a PCI capability list - each entry has a common header that
+identifies a capability and where the next capability in the list can be found.
+The VFIO capability header format is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct
+vfio_info_cap_header``).
+
+VFIO cap header format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++---------+--------+------+
+| Name    | Offset | Size |
++=========+========+======+
+| id      | 0      | 2    |
++---------+--------+------+
+| version | 2      | 2    |
++---------+--------+------+
+| next    | 4      | 4    |
++---------+--------+------+
+
+* *id* is the capability identity.
+* *version* is a capability-specific version number.
+* *next* specifies the offset of the next capability in the capability list. It
+  is relative to the beginning of the VFIO region info structure.
+
+VFIO sparse mmap
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| Name             | Value                            |
++==================+==================================+
+| id               | VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_SPARSE_MMAP |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| version          | 0x1                              |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| next             | <next>                           |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+| sparse mmap info | VFIO region info sparse mmap     |
++------------------+----------------------------------+
+
+This capability is defined when only a subrange of the region supports
+direct access by the client via mmap(). The VFIO sparse mmap area is defined in
+``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_region_sparse_mmap_area``).
+
+VFIO region info cap sparse mmap
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
++----------+--------+------+
+| Name     | Offset | Size |
++==========+========+======+
+| nr_areas | 0      | 4    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| reserved | 4      | 4    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| offset   | 8      | 8    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| size     | 16     | 9    |
++----------+--------+------+
+| ...      |        |      |
++----------+--------+------+
+
+* *nr_areas* is the number of sparse mmap areas in the region.
+* *offset* and size describe a single area that can be mapped by the client.
+  There will be nr_areas pairs of offset and size. The offset will be added to
+  the base offset given in the VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_REGION_INFO to form the
+  offset argument of the subsequent mmap() call.
+
+The VFIO sparse mmap area is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct
+vfio_region_info_cap_sparse_mmap``).
+
+VFIO Region Type
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| Name             | Value                     |
++==================+===========================+
+| id               | VFIO_REGION_INFO_CAP_TYPE |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| version          | 0x1                       |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| next             | <next>                    |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+| region info type | VFIO region info type     |
++------------------+---------------------------+
+
+This capability is defined when a region is specific to the device.
+
+VFIO region info type
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The VFIO region info type is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_region_info_cap_type``).
+
++---------+--------+------+
+| Name    | Offset | Size |
++=========+========+======+
+| type    | 0      | 4    |
++---------+--------+------+
+| subtype | 4      | 4    |
++---------+--------+------+
+
+The only device-specific region type and subtype supported by vfio-user is
+VFIO_REGION_TYPE_MIGRATION (3) and VFIO_REGION_SUBTYPE_MIGRATION (1).
+
+VFIO Device Migration Info
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The beginning of the subregion must contain
+``struct vfio_device_migration_info``, defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``. This
+subregion is accessed like any other part of a standard vfio-user PCI region
+using VFIO_USER_REGION_READ/VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE.
+
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| Name          | Offset | Size                        |
++===============+========+=============================+
+| device_state  | 0      | 4                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
+|               | | Bit | Definition                 | |
+|               | +=====+============================+ |
+|               | | 0   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RUNNING  | |
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
+|               | | 1   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_SAVING   | |
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
+|               | | 2   | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RESUMING | |
+|               | +-----+----------------------------+ |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| reserved      | 4      | 4                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| pending_bytes | 8      | 8                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| data_offset   | 16     | 8                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+| data_size     | 24     | 8                           |
++---------------+--------+-----------------------------+
+
+* *device_state* defines the state of the device:
+
+  The client initiates device state transition by writing the intended state.
+  The server must respond only after it has succesfully transitioned to the new
+  state. If an error occurs then the server must respond to the
+  VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE operation with the Error field set accordingly and
+  must remain at the previous state, or in case of internal error it must
+  transtition to the error state, defined as
+  VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_RESUMING | VFIO_DEVICE_STATE_SAVING. The client must
+  re-read the device state in order to determine it afresh.
+
+  The following device states are defined:
+
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | _RESUMING | _SAVING | _RUNNING | Description                       |
+  +===========+=========+==========+===================================+
+  | 0         | 0       | 0        | Device is stopped.                |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 0         | 0       | 1        | Device is running, default state. |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 0         | 1       | 0        | Stop-and-copy state               |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 0         | 1       | 1        | Pre-copy state                    |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 0       | 0        | Resuming                          |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 0       | 1        | Invalid state                     |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 1       | 0        | Error state                       |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+  | 1         | 1       | 1        | Invalid state                     |
+  +-----------+---------+----------+-----------------------------------+
+
+  Valid state transitions are shown in the following table:
+
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | |darr| From / To |rarr| | Stopped | Running | Stop-and-copy | Pre-copy | Resuming |
+  +=========================+=========+=========+===============+==========+==========+
+  | Stopped                 |    \-   |    0    |       0       |    0     |     0    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Running                 |    1    |    \-   |       1       |    1     |     1    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Stop-and-copy           |    1    |    0    |       \-      |    0     |     0    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Pre-copy                |    0    |    0    |       1       |    \-    |     0    |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+  | Resuming                |    0    |    1    |       0       |    0     |     \-   |
+  +-------------------------+---------+---------+---------------+----------+----------+
+
+  A device is migrated to the destination as follows:
+
+  * The source client transitions the device state from the running state to
+    the pre-copy state. This transition is optional for the client but must be
+    supported by the server. The souce server starts sending device state data
+    to the source client through the migration region while the device is
+    running.
+
+  * The source client transitions the device state from the running state or the
+    pre-copy state to the stop-and-copy state. The source server stops the
+    device, saves device state and sends it to the source client through the
+    migration region.
+
+  The source client is responsible for sending the migration data to the
+  destination client.
+
+  A device is resumed on the destination as follows:
+
+  * The destination client transitions the device state from the running state
+    to the resuming state. The destination server uses the device state data
+    received through the migration region to resume the device.
+
+  * The destination client provides saved device state to the destination
+    server and then transitions the device to back to the running state.
+
+* *reserved* This field is reserved and any access to it must be ignored by the
+  server.
+
+* *pending_bytes* Remaining bytes to be migrated by the server. This field is
+  read only.
+
+* *data_offset* Offset in the migration region where the client must:
+
+  * read from, during the pre-copy or stop-and-copy state, or
+
+  * write to, during the resuming state.
+
+  This field is read only.
+
+* *data_size* Contains the size, in bytes, of the amount of data copied to:
+
+  * the source migration region by the source server during the pre-copy or
+    stop-and copy state, or
+
+  * the destination migration region by the destination client during the
+    resuming state.
+
+Device-specific data must be stored at any position after
+`struct vfio_device_migration_info`. Note that the migration region can be
+memory mappable, even partially. In practise, only the migration data portion
+can be memory mapped.
+
+The client processes device state data during the pre-copy and the
+stop-and-copy state in the following iterative manner:
+
+  1. The client reads `pending_bytes` to mark a new iteration. Repeated reads
+     of this field is an idempotent operation. If there are no migration data
+     to be consumed then the next step depends on the current device state:
+
+     * pre-copy: the client must try again.
+
+     * stop-and-copy: this procedure can end and the device can now start
+       resuming on the destination.
+
+  2. The client reads `data_offset`; at thich point the server must make
+     available a portion of migration data at this offset to be read by the
+     client, which must happen *before* completing the read operation. The
+     amount of data to be read must be stored in the `data_size` field, which
+     the client reads next.
+
+  3. The client reads `data_size` to determine the amount of migration data
+     available.
+
+  4. The client reads and processes the migration data.
+
+  5. Go to step 1.
+
+Note that the client can transition the device from the pre-copy state to the
+stop-and-copy state at any time; `pending_bytes` does not need to become zero.
+
+The client initializes the device state on the destination by setting the
+device state in the resuming state and writing the migration data to the
+destination migration region at `data_offset` offset. The client can write the
+source migration data in an iterative manner and the server must consume this
+data before completing each write operation, updating the `data_offset` field.
+The server must apply the source migration data on the device resume state. The
+client must write data on the same order and transction size as read.
+
+If an error occurs then the server must fail the read or write operation. It is
+an implementation detail of the client how to handle errors.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_GET_IRQ_INFO
+-----------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 6                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 32                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| IRQ info     | VFIO IRQ info          |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to query for
+information about device interrupt types. The VFIO IRQ info structure is
+defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_irq_info``).
+
+VFIO IRQ info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| Name  | Offset | Size                      |
++=======+========+===========================+
+| argsz | 16     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| flags | 20     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | Bit | Definition               | |
+|       | +=====+==========================+ |
+|       | | 0   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_EVENTFD    | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | 1   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_MASKABLE   | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | 2   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_AUTOMASKED | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
+|       | | 3   | VFIO_IRQ_INFO_NORESIZE   | |
+|       | +-----+--------------------------+ |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| index | 24     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+| count | 28     | 4                         |
++-------+--------+---------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO IRQ info structure.
+* *flags* defines IRQ attributes:
+
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_EVENTFD* indicates the IRQ type can support server eventfd
+    signalling.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_MASKABLE* indicates that the IRQ type supports the MASK and
+    UNMASK actions in a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS message.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_AUTOMASKED* indicates the IRQ type masks itself after being
+    triggered, and the client must send an UNMASK action to receive new
+    interrupts.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_INFO_NORESIZE* indicates VFIO_USER_SET_IRQS operations setup
+    interrupts as a set, and new sub-indexes cannot be enabled without disabling
+    the entire type.
+
+* index is the index of IRQ type being queried, it is the only field that is
+  required to be set in the command message.
+* count describes the number of interrupts of the queried type.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQS
+-------------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 7                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 36 + any data          |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| IRQ set      | VFIO IRQ set           |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent by the client to the server to set actions for
+device interrupt types. The VFIO IRQ set structure is defined in
+``<linux/vfio.h>`` (``struct vfio_irq_set``).
+
+VFIO IRQ set format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| Name  | Offset | Size                         |
++=======+========+==============================+
+| argsz | 16     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| flags | 20     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | Bit | Definition                  | |
+|       | +=====+=============================+ |
+|       | | 0   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE      | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 1   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL      | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 2   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD   | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 3   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_MASK    | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 4   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_UNMASK  | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
+|       | | 5   | VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_TRIGGER | |
+|       | +-----+-----------------------------+ |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| index | 24     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| start | 28     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| count | 32     | 4                            |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+| data  | 36     | variable                     |
++-------+--------+------------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO IRQ set structure, including any *data* field.
+* *flags* defines the action performed on the interrupt range. The DATA flags
+  describe the data field sent in the message; the ACTION flags describe the
+  action to be performed. The flags are mutually exclusive for both sets.
+
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE* indicates there is no data field in the command.
+    The action is performed unconditionally.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL* indicates the data field is an array of boolean
+    bytes. The action is performed if the corresponding boolean is true.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD* indicates an array of event file descriptors
+    was sent in the message meta-data. These descriptors will be signalled when
+    the action defined by the action flags occurs. In AF_UNIX sockets, the
+    descriptors are sent as SCM_RIGHTS type ancillary data.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_MASK* indicates a masking event. It can be used with
+    VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to mask an interrupt, or
+    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event when the guest masks
+    the interrupt.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_UNMASK* indicates an unmasking event. It can be used
+    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to unmask an
+    interrupt, or with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event when the
+    guest unmasks the interrupt.
+  * *VFIO_IRQ_SET_ACTION_TRIGGER* indicates a triggering event. It can be used
+    with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL or VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE to trigger an
+    interrupt, or with VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_EVENTFD to generate an event when the
+    server triggers the interrupt.
+
+* *index* is the index of IRQ type being setup.
+* *start* is the start of the sub-index being set.
+* *count* describes the number of sub-indexes being set. As a special case, a
+  count of 0 with data flags of VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_NONE disables all interrupts
+  of the index.
+* *data* is an optional field included when the
+  VFIO_IRQ_SET_DATA_BOOL flag is present. It contains an array of booleans
+  that specify whether the action is to be performed on the corresponding
+  index. It's used when the action is only performed on a subset of the range
+  specified.
+
+Not all interrupt types support every combination of data and action flags.
+The client must know the capabilities of the device and IRQ index before it
+sends a VFIO_USER_DEVICE_SET_IRQ message.
+
+.. _Read and Write Operations:
+
+Read and Write Operations
+-------------------------
+
+Not all I/O operations between the client and server can be done via direct
+access of memory mapped with an mmap() call. In these cases, the client and
+server use messages sent over the socket. It is expected that these operations
+will have lower performance than direct access.
+
+The client can access server memory with VFIO_USER_REGION_READ and
+VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE commands. These share a common data structure that
+appears after the message header.
+
+REGION Read/Write Data
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Name   | Offset | Size     |
++========+========+==========+
+| Offset | 16     | 8        |
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Region | 24     | 4        |
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Count  | 28     | 4        |
++--------+--------+----------+
+| Data   | 32     | variable |
++--------+--------+----------+
+
+* *Offset* into the region being accessed.
+* *Region* is the index of the region being accessed.
+* *Count* is the size of the data to be transferred.
+* *Data* is the data to be read or written.
+
+The server can access client memory with VFIO_USER_DMA_READ and
+VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE messages. These also share a common data structure that
+appears after the message header.
+
+DMA Read/Write Data
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++---------+--------+----------+
+| Name    | Offset | Size     |
++=========+========+==========+
+| Address | 16     | 8        |
++---------+--------+----------+
+| Count   | 24     | 4        |
++---------+--------+----------+
+| Data    | 28     | variable |
++---------+--------+----------+
+
+* *Address* is the area of client memory being accessed. This address must have
+  been previously exported to the server with a VFIO_USER_DMA_MAP message.
+* *Count* is the size of the data to be transferred.
+* *Data* is the data to be read or written.
+
+VFIO_USER_REGION_READ
+---------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 8                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 32 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Read info    | REGION read/write data |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the client to the server to read from server
+memory.  In the command messages, there is no data, and the count is the amount
+of data to be read. The reply message must include the data read, and its count
+field is the amount of data read.
+
+VFIO_USER_REGION_WRITE
+----------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 9                      |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 32 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Write info   | REGION read/write data |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the client to the server to write to server
+memory.  The command message must contain the data to be written, and its count
+field must contain the amount of write data. The count field in the reply
+message must be zero.
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_READ
+------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 10                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 28 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| DMA info     | DMA read/write data    |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the server to the client to read from client
+memory.  In the command message, there is no data, and the count must will be
+the amount of data to be read. The reply message must include the data read,
+and its count field must be the amount of data read.
+
+VFIO_USER_DMA_WRITE
+-------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 11                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 28 + data size         |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| DMA info     | DMA read/write data    |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the server to the client to write to client
+memory.  The command message must contain the data to be written, and its count
+field must contain the amount of write data. The count field in the reply
+message must be zero.
+
+VFIO_USER_VM_INTERRUPT
+----------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Name           | Value                  |
++================+========================+
+| Message ID     | <ID>                   |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Command        | 12                     |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Message size   | 20                     |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Flags          | Reply bit set in reply |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Error          | 0/errno                |
++----------------+------------------------+
+| Interrupt info | <interrupt>            |
++----------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the server to the client to signal the device
+has raised an interrupt.
+
+Interrupt info format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-----------+--------+------+
+| Name      | Offset | Size |
++===========+========+======+
+| Sub-index | 16     | 4    |
++-----------+--------+------+
+
+* *Sub-index* is relative to the IRQ index, e.g., the vector number used in PCI
+  MSI/X type interrupts.
+
+VFIO_USER_DEVICE_RESET
+----------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Name         | Value                  |
++==============+========================+
+| Message ID   | <ID>                   |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Command      | 13                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Message size | 16                     |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Flags        | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------+------------------------+
+| Error        | 0/errno                |
++--------------+------------------------+
+
+This command message is sent from the client to the server to reset the device.
+
+VFIO_USER_DIRTY_PAGES
+---------------------
+
+Message format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Name               | Value                  |
++====================+========================+
+| Message ID         | <ID>                   |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Command            | 14                     |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Message size       | 16                     |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Flags              | Reply bit set in reply |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| Error              | 0/errno                |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+| VFIO Dirty bitmap  | <dirty bitmap>         |
++--------------------+------------------------+
+
+This command is analogous to VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES. It is sent by the client
+to the server in order to control logging of dirty pages, usually during a live
+migration. The VFIO dirty bitmap structure is defined in ``<linux/vfio.h>``
+(``struct vfio_iommu_type1_dirty_bitmap``).
+
+VFIO Dirty Bitmap Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+| Name  | Offset | Size                                    |
++=======+========+=========================================+
+| argsz | 0      | 4                                       |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+| flags | 4      | 4                                       |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
+|       | | Bit | Definition                             | |
+|       | +=====+========================================+ |
+|       | | 0   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_START      | |
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
+|       | | 1   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP       | |
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
+|       | | 2   | VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_GET_BITMAP | |
+|       | +-----+----------------------------------------+ |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+| data  | 8      | 4                                       |
++-------+--------+-----------------------------------------+
+
+* *argsz* is the size of the VFIO dirty bitmap info structure.
+
+* *flags* defines the action to be performed by the server:
+
+  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_START* instructs the server to start logging
+    pages it dirties. Logging continues until explicitly disabled by
+    VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP.
+
+  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_STOP* instructs the server to stop logging
+    dirty pages.
+
+  * *VFIO_IOMMU_DIRTY_PAGES_FLAG_GET_BITMAP* requests from the server to return
+    the dirty bitmap for a specific IOVA range. The IOVA range is specified by
+    "VFIO dirty bitmap get" structure, which must immediatelly follow the
+    "VFIO dirty bitmap" structure, explained next. This operation is only valid
+    if logging of dirty pages has been previously started. The server must
+    respond the same way it does for VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP (the dirty pages
+    bitmap must follow the response header).
+
+  These flags are mutually exclusive with each other.
+
+* *data* This field is unused in vfio-user.
+
+VFIO Dirty Bitmap Get Format
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
++--------+--------+------+
+| Name   | Offset | Size |
++========+========+======+
+| iova   | 0      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| size   | 8      | 8    |
++--------+--------+------+
+| bitmap | 16     | 24   |
++--------+--------+------+
+
+* *iova* is the IOVA offset
+
+* *size* is the size of the IOVA region
+
+* *bitmap* is the VFIO bitmap (``struct vfio_bitmap``), with the same semantics
+  as VFIO_USER_DMA_UNMAP.
+
+
+Appendices
+==========
+
+Unused VFIO ioctl() commands
+----------------------------
+
+The following VFIO commands do not have an equivalent vfio-user command:
+
+* VFIO_GET_API_VERSION
+* VFIO_CHECK_EXTENSION
+* VFIO_SET_IOMMU
+* VFIO_GROUP_GET_STATUS
+* VFIO_GROUP_SET_CONTAINER
+* VFIO_GROUP_UNSET_CONTAINER
+* VFIO_GROUP_GET_DEVICE_FD
+* VFIO_IOMMU_GET_INFO
+
+However, once support for live migration for VFIO devices is finalized some
+of the above commands may have to be handled by the client in their
+corresponding vfio-user form. This will be addressed in a future protocol
+version.
+
+VFIO groups and containers
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The current VFIO implementation includes group and container idioms that
+describe how a device relates to the host IOMMU. In the vfio-user
+implementation, the IOMMU is implemented in SW by the client, and is not
+visible to the server. The simplest idea would be that the client put each
+device into its own group and container.
+
+Backend Program Conventions
+---------------------------
+
+vfio-user backend program conventions are based on the vhost-user ones.
+
+* The backend program must not daemonize itself.
+* No assumptions must be made as to what access the backend program has on the
+  system.
+* File descriptors 0, 1 and 2 must exist, must have regular
+  stdin/stdout/stderr semantics, and can be redirected.
+* The backend program must honor the SIGTERM signal.
+* The backend program must accept the following commands line options:
+
+  * ``--socket-path=PATH``: path to UNIX domain socket,
+  * ``--fd=FDNUM``: file descriptor for UNIX domain socket, incompatible with
+    ``--socket-path``
+* The backend program must be accompanied with a JSON file stored under
+  ``/usr/share/vfio-user``.
--
2.12.2

Is there a schema for it? (similar to docs/interop/vhost-user.json). If it's left for later, then a TODO note should be left.


Not yet, that’s a good suggestion.



--
Marc-André Lureau